Climate change

Documents on Policies and Measures for Comon Action


The Annex I Expert Group has assessed a wide range of policies and measures for greenhouse gas mitigation in 1997 under the project: Policies and Measures for Common Action. The analytical framework for the series of working papers prepared under this project covers a wide range of issues, including greenhouse gas mitigation potential, cost, broader economic effects, political feasibility, implementation requirements (administrative, institutional and political), possible impacts on non Annex I countries, and potential for common action.

The working papers (see below), analyse a wide range of measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with transport, energy supply, energy demand, agriculture, and for enhancing sinks in land-use change and forestry. Many different types of measures are covered, including economic instruments (carbon/energy taxes, tradeable permits, and full cost pricing), market and subsidy reform, voluntary agreements, and energy efficiency standards.

Four broad messages emerge from these working papers:

  1. a range of cost effective policies and measures for greenhouse gas mitigation are available to Annex I countries;
  2. to be politically feasible, policies and measures must be suitable for, and adapted to, local or national circumstances;
  3. packages of policies are likely to be more effective than individual measures: policy options need to be designed to fit with other measures in the sector, and to provide complementary signals for change and innovation;
  4. common action in relation to these policies and measures can be undertaken by Annex I countries in a number of ways: countries can agree to share information on relevant domestic policy experiences, agree on general areas for common action or objectives while leaving flexibility on how to take action to participating governments, or proceed to co-ordinate or harmonise the introduction of specific policies and measures. Given different national circumstances harmonisation may only be relevant in special cases, such as for aviation or maritime transport policies or for small coalitions of countries.

Agriculture and Forestry

Carbon/Energy Taxation

Countries with Economies in Transition

Culture, Choice and Technology


Emission Trading

Energy Market Reform