Climate change

Climate Change Expert Group (CCXG) reports by year


The OECD and the IEA provide secretariat support to the CCXG and prepare analytical papers on issues relevant to the on-going climate change negotiations. Over 100 papers have been prepared for the group since 1993. Please note that these papers are intended to inform national policy-makers and other stakeholders; they do not necessarily represent the views of the OECD or the IEA, nor do they intend to prejudge the views of countries participating in the CCXG.

Papers published in 2009 onwards constitute the OECD/IEA Climate Change Expert Group Paper Series.


Briner G. and S. Moarif, “Unpacking Provisions Related to Transparency of Mitigation and Support in the Paris Agreement”.

Kato T. and J. Ellis, “Communicating Progress in National and Global Adaptation to Climate Change”.



Ellis J. and S. Moarif, “Identifying and Addressing Gaps in the UNFCCC Reporting Framework”.

Ellis J., S. Moarif, Y. Nobuoka, M. Pellegrino and J. Helgeson, “Assessing Options to Increase Climate Support”.

Helgeson, J. and J. Ellis, “The Role of the 2015 Agreement in Enhancing Adaptation to Climate Change”. 

Hood, C., L. Adkins and E. Levina, “Overview of INDCs Submitted by 31 August 2015”.

Moarif, S., “Establishing Cycles for Nationally Determined Mitigation Contributions or Commitments”. 

Moarif, S., “Strategic Review: Implications of Proposals to Date for Mitigation Contributions”.

Nobuoka, Y., J. Ellis and S. Pyndt Andersen, “Encouraging Increased Climate Action by Non-Party Stakeholders”.


Briner, G. and S. Konrad, “Planting the Foundations of a Post-2020 Land Sector Reporting and Accounting Framework”.

Briner, G., T. Kato and T. Hattori, “Built to Last: Designing a Flexible and Durable 2015 Climate Change Agreement”. 

Briner, G., T. Kato, S. Konrad and C. Hood, “Taking Stock of the UNFCCC Process and its Inter-linkages”.

Hood, C. and G. Briner, “Energy Sector Transformation: Issues and Options for the UNFCCC Negotiations”.

Hood C., G. Briner and M. Rocha, “GHG or not GHG: Accounting for diverse mitigation contributions in the post-2020 climate framework”.

Kato, T., J. Ellis and C. Clapp, “The Role of the 2015 Agreement in Mobilising Climate Finance”.

Kato, T., J. Ellis, P. Pauw and R. Caruso, “Scaling up and replicating effective climate finance interventions”.


Briner, G. and A. Prag, “Establishing and Understanding Post-2020 Climate Change Mitigation Commitments”.

Caruso, R. and J. Ellis, “Comparing Definitions and Methods to Estimate Mobilised Climate Finance”.

Ellis, J., R. Caruso and S. Ockenden, “Exploring Climate Finance Effectiveness”.

Prag, A., C. Hood and P. Martins Barata, "Made to Measure: Options for Emissions Accounting under the UNFCCC”.


Clapp, C. and Prag, A. “Projecting Emissions Baselines for National Climate Policy: Options for Guidance to Improve Transparency”.

Clapp, C., J. Ellis, J. Benn and J. Corfee-Morlot, “Tracking Climate Finance: What and How?”.

Prag, A., G. Briner and C. Hood, “Making Markets: Unpacking Design and Governance of Carbon Market Mechanisms”.

Prag, A. and G. Briner, “Crossing the Threshold: Ambitious Baselines for the UNFCCC New Market-based Mechanism”.


Buchner, B., J. Brown and J. Corfee-Morlot, “Monitoring and Tracking Long-Term Finance to Support Climate Action”.

Ellis, J., G. Briner, Y. Dagnet and N. Campbell, “Design Options for International Assessment and Review (IAR) and International Consultations and Analysis (ICA)”.

Ellis, J., G. Briner, S. Moarif and B. Buchner, “Frequent and Flexible: Options for Reporting Guidelines for Biennial Reports”.

Prag, A., C. Hood, A. Aasrud and G. Briner, “Tracking and Trading: Expanding on Options for International Greenhouse Gas Unit Accounting after 2012”.

Prag, A., A. Aasrud and C. Hood, “Keeping Track: Options to Develop International Greenhouse Gas Unit Accounting after 2012”.


Aasrud, A., R. Baron and K. Karousakis, “Market Readiness: Building Blocks for Market Approaches”.

Clapp, C., G. Briner and K. Karousakis, “Low-Emission Development Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional and Policy Lessons”.

Ellis, J., S. Moarif, G. Briner, B. Buchner and E. Massey, “Options to Revise Reporting Guidelines for Annex I and non-Annex I National Communications”.

Ellis, J., S. Moarif and G. Briner (2010), “Core Elements of National Reports”.


Aasrud, A., R. Baron, B. Buchner and K. McCall, “Sectoral Market Mechanisms – Issues for Negotiation and Domestic Implementation”.

Baron, R., B. Buchner and J. Ellis, “Sectoral Approaches and the Carbon Market”.

Clapp, C., K. Karousakis, B. Buchner and J. Chateau, “National and Sectoral GHG Mitigation Potential: A Comparison Across Models”.

Corfee-Morlot, J., B. Guay and K. M. Larsen, “Financing Climate Change Mitigation: Towards a Framework for Measurement, Reporting and Verification”.

Ellis, J., S. Moarif and J. A. Kim, “Reporting and Recording Post-2012 GHG Mitigation Commitments, Actions and Support”.

Ellis, J. and S. Moarif, “GHG Mitigation Actions: MRV Issues and Options”.

Kim, J. A., J. Corfee-Morlot and P. T’Serclaes, “Linking Mitigation Actions in Developing Countries with Mitigation Support: A Conceptual Framework”.

Kim, J. A., J. Ellis and S. Moarif, “Matching Mitigation Actions with Support: Key Issues for Channelling International Public Finance”.


Baron, R., I. Barnsley and J. Ellis, “Options for Integrating Sectoral Approaches into the UNFCCC”.

Ellis, J. and K. Larsen, “Measurement, Reporting and Verification of Mitigation Actions and Commitments”.

Karousakis, K., B. Guay and C. Philibert, “Differentiating Countries in Terms of Mitigation Commitments, Actions and Support”.


Buchner, B., “Policy Uncertainty, Investment and Commitment Periods”.

Ellis, J., R. Baron and B. Buchner, “SD-PAMs: What, Where, When and How?”.

Ellis, J. and S. Kamel, “Overcoming Barriers to Clean Development Mechanism Projects”.

Karousakis, K. and J. Corfee-Morlot, “Financing Mechanisms to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation: Issues in Design and Implementation”.

Karousakis K., “Incentives to Reduce GHG Emissions from Deforestation: Lessons Learned from Costa Rica and Mexico”.

Levina, E., “Adaptation to Climate Change: International Agreements for Local Needs”.

Levina, E., J. E. Jacob, L. E. Ramos and I. Ortiz, “Policy Frameworks for Adaptation to Climate Change in Coastal Zones: The Case of the Gulf of Mexico”.

Philibert, C., J. Ellis and J. Podkanski, “Carbon Capture and Storage in the CDM”.

Philibert, C., “Technology Penetration and Capital Stock Turnover: Lessons from IEA Scenario Analysis”.

Reinaud, J. and C. Philibert, “Emissions Trading: Trends and Prospects”.


Baron, R., “Sectoral Approaches to GHG Mitigation: Scenarios for Integration”.

Baron, R. and J. Ellis, “Sectoral Crediting Mechanisms for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation: Institutional and Operational Issues”.

Ellis, J. and D. Tirpak, “Linking GHG Emission Trading Schemes and Markets”.

Ellis, J. and K. Karousakis, “The Developing CDM Market: May 2006 Update”.

Ellis, J., “Issues Related to a Programme of Activities under the CDM”.

Karousakis, K., “Initial Review of Policies and Incentives to Reduce GHG Emissions from Deforestation”.

Karousakis, K., “Joint Implementation: Current Issues and Emerging Challenges”.

Lefèvre, N., P. de T'Serclaes and P. Waide, “Barriers to Technology Diffusion: The Case of Compact Fluorescent Lamps”.

Levina, E., “Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Water Sector, Part II: non-Annex I Countries – Lessons Learned from Mexico, India, Argentina and Zimbabwe”.

Levina, E. and H. Adams, “Domestic Policy Frameworks for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Water Sector, Part I: Annex I Countries”.

Levina, E. and D. Tirpak, “Adaptation to Climate Change: Key Terms”.

Philibert, C., “Barriers to Technology Diffusion: The Case of Solar Thermal Technologies”.


Bosi, M. and J. Ellis, “Exploring Options for "Sectoral Crediting Mechanisms"”.

Ellis, J. and R. Baron, “Sectoral Crediting Mechanisms: An Initial Assessment of Electricity and Aluminium”.

Ellis, J. and E. Levina, “The Developing CDM Market”.

Guéret, T., “International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, Case Study 3: Appliance Energy Efficiency”.

Justus, D. and C. Philibert, “International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation: Synthesis Report”.

Justus, D., “International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, Case Study 5: Wind Power Integration into Electricity Systems”.

Philibert, C., “Climate Mitigation: Integrating Approaches for Future International Co-operation”.

Philibert, C., “New Commitment Options: Compatibility with Emissions Trading”.

Philibert, C., “Approaches for Future International Co-operation”.

Philibert, C. and J. Podkanski, “International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, Case Study 4: Clean Coal Technologies”.

Tirpak, D and M. Ward, “The Adaptation Landscape”.

Willems, S., “National Approaches to Adaptation: Some Lessons Learnt from Recent OECD and UNFCCC workshops”.


Blyth, W. and M. Bosi, “Linking non-EU Domestic Emissions Trading Schemes with the EU Emissions Trading Schemes”.

Bygrave, S. and M. Bosi, “Linking Project-based Mechanisms with Domestic Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Schemes”.

Ellis, J. and F. Gagnon-Lebrun, “The CDM Portfolio: Update Focusing on Non-electricity Projects”.

Ellis, J., J. Corfee-Morlot and H. Winkler, “Taking Stock of Progress under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)”.

Gagnon-Lebrun, F., “International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, Case Study 2: Co-operation in Agriculture - R&D on High-yielding Crop Varieties”.

Philibert, C., “International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation, Case Study 1: Concentrating Solar Power Technologies”.

Philibert, C. and J. Reinaud, “Emissions Trading: Taking Stock and Looking Forward”.

Philibert, C., “International Energy Technology Collaboration and Climate Change Mitigation”.

Willems, S., “Institutional Capacity and Climate Actions: Summary Paper”.


Blyth, W. and R. Baron, “Green Investment Schemes: Options and Issues”.

Bygrave, S. and J. Ellis, “Policies to Reduce GHG Emissions in Industry - Successful Approaches and Lessons Learned: Workshop Report”.

Ellis. J., “Evaluating Experience with Electricity-generating GHG Mitigation Projects”.

Ellis, J., “Forestry Projects: Lessons Learned and Implications for CDM Modalities”.

Herold, A., “Current Status of National Inventory Preparation in Annex I and non-Annex I Parties”.

Philibert, C., “Technology Innovation, Development and Diffusion”.

Philibert, C., J. Pershing, S. Willems and J. Corfee-Morlot, “Evolution of Mitigation Commitments: Some Key Issues”.

Willems, S. and K. Baumert, “Institutional Capacity and Climate Actions”.


Baron, R. and S. Bygrave, “Towards International Emissions Trading: Design Implications for Linkages”.

Bosi, M. and A. Laurence, “Road-Testing Baselines for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Projects in the Electric Power Sector”.

Ellis, J., “Developing Guidance on Monitoring and Project Boundaries for GHG Projects”.

Kartha, S. and M. Lazarus, “Practical Baseline Recommendations for GHG Mitigation Projects in the Electric Power Sector”.

Willems, S., J. Ellis, R. Dornau, F. Mullins and E. Levina, “National Systems for Flexible Mechanisms: Implementation Issues in Countries with Economies in Transition, Workshop Report”.

Willems, S. and J. Pershing, “Climate-relevant Policy Assessment: Recent Work in the OECD, IEA, NEA and ECMT”.


Baron, R., “The Commitment Period Reserve”.

Bode, J. W., J. de Beer, K. Blok and J. Ellis, “Potential and Implications for Multi-Project Emission Baselines: Iron and Steel Case Study”.

Bosi, M., “Fast-tracking Small CDM Projects: Implications for the Electricity Sector”.

Bosi, M., “An Initial View on Methodologies for Emission Baselines: Electricity Generation Case Study”.

Ellis, J., “Forestry Projects: Permanence, Credit Accounting and Lifetime”.

Ellis, J., J. Pershing and F. Mullins (2001), “Transition Country Perspectives on the Kyoto Protocol, Workshop Report and Questionnaire Results”.

Ellis, J., “An Initial View on Methodologies for Emission Baselines: Cement Case Study”.

McGlynn, G., P. Crist, L. Fulton and M. Crass, “Good Practice Greenhouse Abatement Policies: Transport”.

Salon, D., “An Initial View on Methodologies for Emission Baselines: Transport Case Study”.

Violette, D., C. Mudd and M. Keneipp, “An Initial View on Methodologies for Emission Baselines: Energy Efficiency Case Study”.

Willems, S., “Framework for Baseline Guidelines”.

Willems, S., R. Baron, J. Corfee-Morlot, J. Ellis, M. Bosi, F. Mullins and J. Werksman, “Kyoto Mechanisms, Monitoring and Compliance, from Kyoto to The Hague”.


Baron, R., “Market Access Issues in International GHG Emissions Trading”.

Baron, R., “An Assessment of Liability Rules for International GHG Emissions Trading”.

Baron, R., “Market Power and Market Access in International GHG Emissions Trading”.

Ellis, J. and M. Bosi, “Options for Project Emission Baselines”.

Willems, S., “Key Features of Domestic Monitoring Systems under the Kyoto Protocol”.



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