March 2015: New OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 164:
Carcillo S. et al. (2015), NEET Youth in the Aftermath of the Crisis: Challenges and Policies
6 Key Indicators on the situation of disadvantaged youth (NEET *)
Figure 1: NEET rates have increased in almost all OECD countries from 2007 to 2011
Figure 2: The share of highly educated youth among NEETs is low, but rising
Figure 3: The parents of NEETs tend to be less educated
Figure 4: Women are more likely to be NEET than men
Figure 5: Inactive NEETs spend more time on housework and less time on leisure than unemployed NEETs
Figure 6: Only few NEETs think that most people can be trusted
*NEET: Not in Employment, Education or Training
Complete .xls file with all figures
Left panel: share of youth not in employment education or training (NEET) in % of all youth
Right panel: percentage-point change in NEET rates, 2007-2011
Reading Note: The deterioration in the economic conditions since 2007 resulted in falling participation rates and a net loss of employment for young people in many OECD countries. NEET rates are consequently highest among those countries that were struck most severely by the crisis (left panel). The share of NEETs among the youth population increased during 2007-2011 in nearly all countries. This trend was nearly exclusively driven by a rise in the share of unemployed NEETs; shares of inactive NEETs typically remained stable or even declined (right panel).
Complete data with more countries & notes for Figure 1.
Left panel: breakdown in % of NEET by level of education in 2011
Right panel: percentage-point change in the share of highly-educated youth among NEETs over the period 2007-2011
Reading Note: In nearly all OECD countries, youth with low education (i.e. at most lower-secondary school level) are strongly overrepresented, accounting for 50% or more of all NEETs in Norway, Spain and the Netherlands (left panel). By contrast, the share of highly-educated youth (i.e. those with at least some tertiary education) is generally low, reaching 20% of all NEETs only for Australia and Spain, but exceeding 30% for Greece.
Complete data with more countries & notes for Figure 2.
Maximum level of educational attainment of parents for NEETs and non-NEETs, 2011
Reading Note: Parents’ education is closely associated with a young person’s NEET status: In all OECD countries, the maximum level of education of NEETs’ parents is lower than that for non-NEETs. For NEETs who still live in their parents’ home, the maximum level of parental education is on average 3.1, compared to an average of 3.5 for non-NEETs living with their parents. This translates into upper-secondary (ISCED level 3) to post-secondary (level 4) education. Many factors other than the educational level of parents could explain this effect (poverty, school quality, migrant status, etc.). The figure should therefore been interpreted as showing a correlation that may not necessary reflect a causal relationshop.
Complete data with more countries & notes for Figure 3.
NEET rates for women and men in % of the respective population shares
Reading Note: NEET rates differ strongly by sex, being typically much higher for young women than for men. The female-male gap in NEET rates is considerable in a number of other countries, reaching for instance nearly 10 percentage points in Australia and Poland.
Complete data with more countries & notes for Figure 4.
Average time spent in each activity in hours; inactive NEETs minus unemployed NEETs
Reading Note: Inactive NEETs spend substantially more time doing unpaid work than the unemployed NEETs (top panel). In principle, the main distinction between the two groups lies in their availability for employment; there is thus ex ante no obvious reason why unemployed NEETs would have less time available for housework than inactive NEETs, though of course unemployed NEETs might have to spend some time on active job search. Unemployed NEETs by contrast have substantially more time for leisure activities than inactive NEETs. This difference is observed across a range of types of activities, including cultural and social activities, sports, time spent in front of the computer, TV, or radio, and also sleeping time.
Complete data with more countries & notes for Figure 5.
Proportion of people who think that most people can be trusted, by activity status
Reading Note: Overall, NEETs are less trusting in other people than active youth. Two groups can be identified: (a) The Nordic countries and the Netherlands, where NEETs and youth more generally largely trust other people. (b) The remaining countries.
The differences between NEETs and active youth in the degree of trust are small for the first group: A large proportion of youth trust other people, regardless of labour market status. By contrast, in many other countries, the proportion of youth who trust other people is low, and it is much lower still for NEETs. The gap between NEETs and active youth is particularly high in Germany and the United Kingdom, with a difference of over 15 percentage points.
Complete data with more countries & notes for Figure 6.
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