Employment

The Missing Entrepreneurs 2017

Policies for Inclusive Entrepreneurship

Published on December 05, 2017

book

The Missing Entrepreneurs 2017 is the fourth edition in a series of publications that examine how public policies at national, regional and local levels can support job creation, economic growth and social inclusion by overcoming obstacles to business start-ups and self-employment by people from disadvantaged or under-represented groups in entrepreneurship. It shows that there is substantial potential to combat unemployment and increase labour market participation by facilitating business creation in populations such as women, youth, the unemployed, and migrants. However, the specific problems they face need to be recognised and addressed with effective and efficient policy measures.
This edition contains in-depth policy discussion chapters on the quality of self-employment, including new forms of self-employment such as dependent and false self-employment, and the potential of self-employment as an adjustment mechanism in major firm restructuring and job shedding. Each thematic chapter discusses current policy issues and challenges, and makes recommendations for policy makers. A data section provides a range of information on self-employment and business creation rates, barriers and key characteristics of businesses operated by social group. Finally, country profiles highlight recent trends in inclusive entrepreneurship, key policy challenges and recent policy actions in each of the 28 EU Member States.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface by Lamia Kamal-Chaoui
Preface by Michel Servoz
Foreword
Executive summary
Reader's guide
Inclusive entrepreneurship policy
Inclusive entrepreneurship indicators: Activity rates and barriers5 chapters available
Women's self-employment and entrepreneurship activities
Youth self-employment and entrepreneurship activities
Seniors' self-employment and entrepreneurship activities
Self-employment and entrepreneurship by the unemployed
Immigrants' self-employment and entrepreneurship activities
Policies for inclusive entrepreneurship2 chapters available
Is self-employment quality work?
Self-employment as an adjustment mechanism in major firm restructuring
Country profiles: Key inclusive entrepreneurship trends, issues and recent policy actions29 chapters available
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Austria
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Belgium
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Bulgaria
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Croatia
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Cyprus
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in the Czech Republic
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Denmark
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Estonia
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Finland
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in France
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Germany
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Greece
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Hungary
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Ireland
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Italy
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Latvia
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Lithuania
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Luxembourg
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Malta
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in the Netherlands
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Poland
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Portugal
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Romania
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in the Slovak Republic
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Slovenia
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Spain
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in Sweden
Inclusive entrepreneurship trends and policies in the United Kingdom
Glossary
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News releaseS

Encouraging business creation among disadvantaged populations can create jobs and alleviate social exclusion

Disadvantaged groups in the labour market: OECD/EU report marks added value of entrepreneurship

 

 

Entrepreneurship among under-represented and disadvantaged groups

There were 30.6 million self-employed people in the European Union in 2016, of which nearly 10.0 million were women, 763 300 were youth, 11.8 million were seniors, 635 000 were unemployed (in 2015) and 3.4 million were immigrants. While there are overlaps between these groups, it is clear that entrepreneurs from under-represented and disadvantaged groups are significant in number. Yet these groups are under-represented relative to their share in employment. For example, women are only half as likely as men to be self-employed and only 4.1% of working youth were self-employed. There is unrealised entrepreneurial potential among these groups that public policy can help unlock.

 

Self-employment rate, 2016

Percentage of total employment

 

Note: *denotes data from 2015
Source: Eurostat (2017), Labour Force Survey, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/lfs/data/database;
OECD (2016),”Indicators of gender equality in entrepreneurship”, OECD Gender Portal, available at: www.oecd.org/gender/data/.

To increase the quantity and quality of entrepreneurship activities by these groups it is important to understand the barriers that they face in business creation. This report shows, for example, that women are less likely to report that they have the skills and knowledge to start a business than men (34.1% vs. 49.9% for men in the European Union between 2012 and 2016, and 36.8% vs. 51.2% for men in OECD countries). Similarly, youth also face challenges due to a lack of skills and experience in the labour market, while the barriers faced by seniors vary depending on individual circumstances, entrepreneurial intentions and experience. Public policy needs to be designed to help people from these groups have an equal opportunity to be successful in entrepreneurship, regardless of personal characteristics and background.

 

Further reading

The OECD is working with the European Commission, DG Employment and Social Affairs to examine the barriers faced to business creation and self-employment by people who are disadvantaged or under-represented in entrepreneurship activities - youth, seniors, the disabled, women, ethnic minorities, the unemployed and others - and the public policy actions that can promote and support these activities.

CONTACT

For further information or comment, please contact:

Journalists should contact the OECD's Media Relations Division at (33) 1 45 24 97 00 or news.contact@oecd.org.