Colombia has made major economic and social advances in recent years. The combination of strong economic growth and policies targeted at the most vulnerable groups improved considerably the living standards of the Colombian population. Today, the country enjoys higher employment and labour force participation rates than the average of OECD countries and unemployment is steadily declining. Nevertheless, despite these positive trends, deep structural problems remain. Labour informality is widespread, the rate of self-employment is high and many employees have non-regular contracts. Income inequality is higher than in any OECD country and redistribution through taxes and benefits is almost negligible. In addition, half a century of internal conflict and violence has displaced a significant part of the population, and many of them are living in extreme poverty. Despite considerable progress, violence continues to be a challenge and also affects trade union members and leaders. The Colombian Government has undertaken important reforms in recent years to address these labour market and social challenges, and the efforts are gradually paying off. However, further progress is needed to enhance the quality of jobs and well-being for all. The main trust of this report is to support the Colombian Government in tackling labour market duality, generate trust between the social partners, develop inclusive and active social policies, and get the most out of international migration.
The Missing Entrepreneurs 2015 is the third edition in a series of annual reports that provide data and policy analysis on inclusive entrepreneurship. Inclusive entrepreneurship involves business start-up and self-employment activities that contribute to social inclusion as well as to economic growth, covering entrepreneurship activities by social groups such as youth, women, seniors, immigrants and the unemployed.
The report contains data on the scale and scope of entrepreneurship and self-employment activities across EU Member States by social target groups, as well as the barriers they face. The report also contains special thematic chapters on supporting growth for entrepreneurs from disadvantaged and under-represented groups, effective coaching and mentoring, and the role of public procurement in supporting inclusive entrepreneurship. Each thematic chapter discusses current policy issues and challenges, and makes recommendations for EU policy makers. The report also provides inspiring policy-practice examples from each of the 28 EU Members.
Given the ageing challenges, there is an increasing pressure in OECD countries to promote longer working lives. This report provides an overview of policy initiatives implemented in Denmark over the past decade. Even if these recent reforms are well in line with the recommendations of the 2005 OECD report Ageing and Employment Policies: Denmark, the focus has been put mainly on the supply side. The aim of this new report is to identify what more could be done to promote longer working lives. As a first step, the government should assess closely the implementation process to ensure that the expected outcomes of the reforms are achieved. More broadly, the strategy should act simultaneously in three areas by: i) strengthening incentives to carry on working; ii) tackling employment barriers on the side of employers; and iii) improving the employability of older workers.
Tackling mental ill-health of the working-age population is becoming a key issue for labour market and social policies in OECD countries. OECD governments increasingly recognise that policy has a major role to play in keeping people with mental ill-health in employment or bringing those outside of the labour market back to it, and in preventing mental illness. This report on Austria is the eighth in a series of reports looking at how the broader education, health, social and labour market policy challenges identified in Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work (OECD, 2012) are being tackled in a number of OECD countries. It concludes that the Austrian system provides good opportunities in principle for improving labour market inclusion of people with mental ill-health but that structural fragmentation of responsibilities limits the means of the federal government to develop coherent health and work policies. Successful structural reform requires including a range of actors responsible for policy implementation to achieve coordination across institutions and better integrated service delivery.
The OECD LEED Programme contributed to the background report for the 2014 Trilogue Conference of the Bertelsmann Foundation, whose theme was “A Habitat for Entrepreneurship: Creating a Culture of Innovation”.
The OECD LEED Programme has contributed to a report by UK Guild-HE on the role of small and specialist higher education institutions (HEIs) in local economic development.
This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth labour market and education system in Latvia from an international comparative perspective, and offers tailored recommendations to help improve school-to-work transitions. It also provides an opportunity for other countries to learn from the innovative measures that Latvia has taken to strengthen the skills of youth and their employment outcomes, notably through the implementation of a Youth Guarantee.
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Labour market conditions are improving in many OECD countries but the recovery from the recent economic crisis remains very uneven. Employment is still growing too slowly in the OECD area to close the jobs gap induced by the crisis, even by the end of 2016. Consequently, unemployment for the OECD as a whole is projected to continue its slow decline, reaching 6.6% by the end of 2016.
Entrepreneurship at a Glance, a product of the OECD-Eurostat Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme, presents an original collection of indicators for measuring the state of entrepreneurship, along with key facts and explanations of the policy context. The 2015 edition features a special chapter on the international activities of SMEs.
This report delivers evidence-based and practical recommendations on how to better support employment and economic development in Israel. It builds on sub-national data analysis and consultations with local stakeholders in Haifa and Yizreel. It provides a comparative framework to understand the role of the local level in contributing to more and better quality jobs. The report can help national and local policy makers in Israel build effective and sustainable partnerships at the local level, which join-up efforts and achieve stronger outcomes across employment, training, and economic development policies. Co-ordinated policies can help workers find suitable jobs, while also stimulating entrepreneurship and productivity, which increases the quality of life and prosperity within a community as well as throughout the country.