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Despite unprecedented progress over the past century, gender gaps in the labour market persist throughout the world and are especially marked in emerging economies. While the quantity of jobs held by women has increased in many countries, female workers continue to have worse jobs than men.
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OECD analyses have begun to understand the relationship between digitalisation, jobs and skills, the magnitude of potential job substitution due to technological change, the relationship between globalisation and wage polarisation, as well as the changes to the organisation of work.
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All OECD countries, except the United States, provide nationwide paid maternity leave. Over half also offer paternity leave to fathers right after childbirth. By enabling fathers to take on a greater share of the childcare burden, parental leave can support women’s careers.
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Business lending in Ireland has still not recovered to pre-crisis levels. Credit conditions remain tight, and interest rates high by Euro area standards, especially for small firms.
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OECD countries are seeing a trend away from traditional employment towards part-time and temporary work and self-employment. However, there are concerns that part-time and temporary work are contributing to inequality and poverty. Policy needs to focus on ensuring that these "non-traditional" jobs are stepping stones to better jobs, not dead ends.
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Addressing poor labour market outcomes for youth will require measures to boost job creation, increase employability through better education and training, promote entrepreneurship, improve job quality, and strengthen social protection.
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The incidence of long-term unemployment in Slovenia is among the highest in the OECD. The crisis has hit the youth the hardest, leaving more than one in five young workers without a job.
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To achieve greater gender equality in employment and more inclusive growth, Japan needs to change the workplace culture and ensure that the tax and social security systems do not reduce work incentives for second earners in households.
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The OECD programme on local economic and employment development (LEED) has advised governments and communities since 1982 on how to respond to economic change and tackle complex problems in a fast-changing world. Its mission is to contribute to the creation of more and better quality jobs through more effective policy implementation, innovative practices, stronger capacities and integrated strategies at the local level.
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Many spells in self-employment end within the first few years of business. This can be by choice to earn income in-between jobs, or it can be due to systematic barriers that prevent businesses from becoming sustainable. This Policy Brief was prepared by the LEED (Local Economic and Employment Development) Programme of the OECD with the financial support of the European Commission, D-G for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion.