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Publications & Documents


  • 4-April-2019

    English

    Women and Trade Networks in West Africa

    Women make a significant contribution to West Africa's food economy, perpetuating a long tradition of commerce and participating in cross-border trade and regional outreach. Their activities face numerous obstacles but also present important opportunities, highlighted in this report through an unprecedented relational and spatial analysis of social networks. The study focuses on the rice sector in the Dendi region (Benin, Niger and Nigeria) and on the regional governance networks that support women's entrepreneurship. It confirms that Nigeria occupies a privileged position due to its demographics and growing urbanisation. The report proposes the development of innovative public policies based on the reinforcement of the social capital of women and policy approaches that promote better integration of the initiatives undertaken by governments, international and non-governmental organisations to empower women and strengthen their resilience.
  • 2-April-2019

    English

    Working Together for Local Integration of Migrants and Refugees in Rome

    This report focuses on the local level integration of migrants in Rome, and provides information on the national framework for integration in Italy. While the study assumes that local authorities are at the forefront of migrant integration – providing information and essential services, ensuring access to education and the labour market, overcoming the barriers for full inclusion in the host society, and managing conflicts – local authorities are not alone. This report stresses the importance of multi-level governance of migrant integration, highlighting the key role of third sector enterprises, NGOs, business, faith-based organisations and unions. It identifies and shares selected local actions and governance practices to manage the short- and long-term effects of migration flows, and provides an international comparative of practices implemented by other EU cities, highlighting the most effective measures and lessons learned.
  • 28-March-2019

    English

    The Sharing and Gig Economy: Effective Taxation of Platform Sellers - Forum on Tax Administration

    This report looks at approaches to help ensure the effective taxation of those earning income from the sale of goods or services in the sharing and gig economy. It considers the different ways that tax administrations can best engage with platform sellers, sharing and gig economy platforms, and each other to enable more effective tax compliance. The report is divided into four chapters. The first chapter sets out the background to the sharing and gig economy and the role of online platforms. The second chapter provides some examples of current approaches that are being taken by OECD Forum on Tax Administration members that participated in this work. Chapter three sets out a range of options that tax administrations may wish to consider to help enable compliance in this sector. Finally, chapter four sets out three recommendations and considerations for possible further work: joint work between tax administrations and platforms on providing information and support to platform sellers; improving the evidence base to enhance understanding of the tax at risk in relation to platforms; and assisting in the possible development of a legislative model for standardised reporting by sharing and gig economy platforms.
  • 28-March-2019

    English

    Workshop on Spatial Dimensions of Productivity

    The OECD Global Forum on Productivity (GFP) and the Spatial Productivity Lab (SPL) at the OECD Trento Centre for Local Development, in collaboration with the Autonomous Province of Bolzano and the Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance, will organise a workshop on Spatial Dimensions of Productivity on 28-29 March 2019 in Bolzano, Italy.

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  • 28-March-2019

    English

    Vocational Education and Training in Estonia

    One of a series of studies on vocational education and training, this review assesses the vocational education and training (VET) in Estonia and provides policy recommendations.Estonia does very well in terms of student achievement on PISA, and the results from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) are also excellent. Unemployment levels are low. But despite recent reforms, VET remains relatively low status compared to general education, dropout rates are too high for comfort, and apprenticeships, despite recent efforts, fail to attract many young people. Suggested approaches to improve VET in Estonia include the expansion of work-based learning within all VET programmes and measures to increase the number of apprentices. Tackling dropout should be done by a set of complementary measures, including support in basic skills for those students lagging behind. Building pathways between VET and general education options can help improve the status of VET. More and better career guidance, especially before the key grade 9 transition point, is also needed.
  • 26-March-2019

    English

    Building an EU Talent Pool - A New Approach to Migration Management‎ for Europe

    How can the European Union become more attractive for talented professionals looking for job opportunities worldwide? Can EU-level action support employers, private and public stakeholders in each Member State to better leverage international recruitment into the Single Market? This report presents a new overview of the obstacles that continue to hamper the attraction and recruitment of skills from outside Europe, and discusses the role of both public and private initiatives to help overcome these barriers. It provides a comparative analysis of the Expression of Interest (EoI) system of migration management as implemented in Australia, Canada and New Zealand, and assesses its potential to address the needs of the European labour migration system. The report presents several options and variants for adapting the EoI, step by step and EU-wide, and examines their feasibility, constraints and advantages.
  • 25-March-2019

    English

    Vocational Education and Training in Sweden

    One of a series of studies on vocational education and training, this review focuses on the vocational education and training (VET) in Sweden and concludes with policy recommendations.Over recent years, Sweden has launched a series of reforms to enhance involvement of social partners in VET, to increase provision of work-based learning in VET programmes and to promote apprenticeship. Higher vocational education and training launched in 2002 has been expanding. At the same time, numerous sectors are grappling with labour shortages increasing pressure on VET to better match the provision to changing demand for skills; and fewer young people opt for VET programmes than in the past. This report suggests several ways in which the Swedish VET system may respond to these challenges. Sweden may encourage co-operation between schools, for example by linking it to school evaluation and funding criteria. The report also argues that Sweden may further enhance social partners’ involvement in VET by creating a framework for systematic social partners’ involvement at the local level and by providing social partners with more responsibility over some aspects of VET.
  • 21-March-2019

    English

    Policy Responses to New Forms of Work

    This report provides a snapshot of the policy actions being taken by OECD, EU and G20 countries in response to growing diversity in forms of employment, with the aim of encouraging peer learning where countries are facing similar issues. It shows that many countries are reflecting on whether existing policies and institutions are capable of addressing effectively the current (and future) challenges of a rapidly changing world of work. In recent years, many countries have seen the emergence of, and/or growth in, particular labour contract types that diverge from the standard employment relationship (i.e. full-time dependent employment of indefinite duration). These include temporary and casual contracts, as well as own-account work and platform work. Several countries have also seen growth in false self-employment, where employers seek to evade tax and regulatory dues and obligations. These changes are driving policy makers worldwide to review how policies in different areas – labour market, skills development, social protection – can best respond. How can policymakers balance the flexibility offered by a diversity of employment contracts, on the one hand, with protection for workers and businesses, on the other?
  • 19-March-2019

    English

    Society at a Glance: Asia/Pacific 2019

    This is the fourth edition of Society at a Glance Asia/Pacific, the OECD’s overview of social indicators for the region. The report addresses the growing demand for quantitative evidence on social well-being and its trends across countries in Asia and the Pacific.  Chapter 1 introduces this volume and provides readers with a guide to help them interpret OECD social indicators. Chapter 2 focuses on issues around extending coverage and the future of social protection in Asia and the Pacific. Already, there are many workers in Asia and the Pacific whose job does not entitle them to social and health supports. Digitalisation and changes in the nature of work may lead to further job-loss, but also increase economic labour market and economic inequalities between high- and low-skilled workers; workers with and without access to social benefits. These rising inequalities will further challenge social policy development in its quest to get support to those who need it most. The chapter includes some country programme examples to illustrate possible policy responses. Chapter 3 to 7 each present five indicators on general context, self-sufficiency, equity, health and social cohesion.
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  • 14-March-2019

    English

    Community Education and Training in South Africa

    Adult learning systems play a crucial role in helping people adapt to the changing world of work and develop relevant skills. Community Education and Training has been brought forward as a possible way to foster adult learning in South Africa, especially among disadvantaged groups. South Africa has a relatively large group of adults who have low levels of education and skills, and limited opportunities for skills development. This report looks at the potential role that Community Education and Training could play in South Africa, how the system should be financed, how to align the training offer with community needs, and how to ensure high-quality provision. The report provides international good practise examples and suggests actions that South African stakeholders might consider to develop the Community Education and Training system.
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