LEED Programme (Local Economic and Employment Development)


  • Building local responsiveness in employment and skills systems in Southeast Asia

    This report on Building local responsiveness in employment and skills systems in Southeast Asia presents learnings from local case studies in Thailand, Viet Nam, Malaysia and the Philippines in an effort to showcase successful examples of partnerships between employers and the vocational education system. It draws from local experiences to provide policy makers with practical advice for the implementation of vocational education programmes.

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  • Engaging Employers in Apprenticeship Opportunities

    This joint OECD-ILO publication provides guidance on how local and regional governments can foster business-education partnerships in apprenticeship programmes and other types of work-based learning, drawing on case studies across nine countries.

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  • Boosting Social Enterprise Development

    Social enterprises are long-standing agents of inclusive growth and democratisation of the economic and social spheres, and they have proved resilient to economic adversity all the while addressing socio-economic challenges in innovative ways, re-integrating people back to the labour market, and contributing to overall social cohesion. This compendium derives policy lessons for boosting social enterprises from the analysis of 20 initiatives in several EU member-countries, covering a range of policy areas from legal frameworks, finance, market access, and support structures, to education and skills.

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The OECD Programme on Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) has advised governments and communities since 1982 on how to respond to economic change and tackle complex problems in a fast-changing world. Its mission is to contribute to the creation of more and better quality jobs through more effective policy implementation, innovative practices, stronger capacities and integrated strategies at the local level. LEED draws on a comparative analysis of experience from the five continents in fostering economic growth, employment and inclusion. [more


Capacity buildings

 Member countries and associates





Publications in focus

Boosting Social Enterprise Development 



Engaging Employers in Apprenticeship Opportunities


All publications


All working papers



Projects in focus

Employment & Skills

Creating more and better quality jobs is key to boosting growth, reducing poverty and increasing social cohesion. How can national and local policies be better aligned and tailored to specific local opportunities and challenges? There are a number of barriers to getting the local conditions for job creation right. 



The OECD Centre for Entrepreneurship has always considered entrepreneurship to be a key driver of economic growth and job creation. In the current phase of economic recovery, entrepreneurship is helping to create new jobs to counter job losses as well as providing people with career opportunities that fit their preferences better than waged employment.



The OECD LEED Trento Centre

The OECD LEED Trento Centre is an integral part of LEED and was established by the OECD, the Italian Government and the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy) in 2003. The mission of the Trento Centre is to build capacities for local development in OECD member and non-member countries. 


Social Economy

An entire segment of the economy is composed of entities that aim to increase social inclusion and reduce inequalities, while simultaneously creating economic value. Social economy organisations, such as different types of cooperatives, associations, foundations, mutuals and social enterprises are developing at a fast pace around the world. 


Smarter Local Development

The purpose of local development is to build the capacity of a defined area to improve its economic future and the quality of life for inhabitants. Local development makes an important contribution to national economic performance and has become more critical with increased global competition, population mobility, technological advances, and consequential spatial differences and imbalances.


The LEED Forum

The Forum on Partnerships and Local Development (FPLD) is the OECD’s network of practitioners in the fields of economic development, employment, skills and social inclusion. Created by the LEED Programme in 2004, the Forum aims to build the capacities of stakeholders at all levels to work in partnerships to better tackle current economic and social challenges. 





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