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This paper discusses how governments can “seize the moment” of the economic crisis to suggest and implement structural reforms. It examines the particular challenges to reform – and possible solutions to those challenges.
As attention shifts to fiscal consolidation, sustaining output growth will depend increasingly on private domestic demand, requiring reforms, particularly in the labour market and the non-manufacturing sector.
Why are some policy reforms implemented while others languish? This new report aims to answer this important question by looking backwards -- at 20 structural reform efforts in 10 OECD countries, during the past two decades. This page presents the principle messages of the study.
Why are some policy reforms implemented while others languish? This new report aims to answer this important question by looking backwards - at 20 structural reform efforts in 10 OECD countries, during the past two decades. The case studies cover a wide variety of reform attempts in three key areas - pensions, labour-, and product-market regulation.
Despite progress over the past decades, Greece’s educational indicators lag behind those of other OECD countries. PISA scores are low, a large number of tertiary students study abroad, and attainment rates are low at all levels of education, as discussed in this working paper.
Labour market outcomes have improved markedly in the past years as the beneficial effects of the economic upswing were reinforced by important structural reforms.
Greece needs to enhance its education performance. While important challenges remain at all levels, early childhood education and care and the upper secondary education are in most need of reforms.
High public debt leaves virtually no room for fiscal manoeuvre to limit the impact of the crisis in Greece. The close trade and banking links established with the Balkan countries might be a risk in the near future.
Despite improved fundamentals, Mexico is hit hard by the financial crisis, being exposed to several simultaneous external shocks. A welcome, but weak, stimulus was passed for 2009, and policy will likely need to be supportive also in 2010.
This paper uses a large dataset combining census, household survey and budgetary data for nearly 4 000 Brazilian municipalities to estimate the impact of government spending on education and health outcomes.