Employment policies and data

The Public Employment Service in the United States

 

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    ISBN: 9264170111
    Publication: 04/04/1999
    Pages: 232

Over the last decade, labour market policy in the United States has been undergoing a period of significant restructuring. In the face of welfare reform initiatives, persistent unemployment and declines in real income among some groups (particularly the less skilled), and continued economic expansion, there is pressure on the public employment service (PES) to improve effectiveness. But, it must also come to terms with resource limitations.
How have reforms fared so far - what seems to be working well or not so well? Which of the new approaches may require revision in the event of an economic downturn? Where might adjustments lead to improved effectiveness? While considering such questions, this publication provides an in-depth look at the PES and recent policy initiatives in the United States. Areas of concern about recent reforms are outlined and options for making policies more effective are presented.


Table of Contents

This study examines the public employment service (PES) in the United States. PES agencies are at the centre of current policy debates on how best to design and implement efficient and equitable employment-oriented labour market and social policies. Given the range of issues addressed, this study is broadly defined to include the public labour exchange, unemployment insurance, referral mechanisms for active labour market programmes, and certain employment-related aspects of social welfare programmes. In order to highlight the decentralised structure of the PES, the review includes an in-depth look at policy implementation in two leading states where policy changes have been quite extensive– Connecticut and Wisconsin.

  • Chapter 1. Introduction
  • Chapter 2. The American Labour Market and Basic PES Structure
    A. Labour market overview
    B. The structure of unemployment
    C. Earnings and income
    D. Employment protection
    E. The origins of the public employment service in the US
    F. Key labour market policy institutions and actors
    G. US Department of Labor and the state employment security agencies
    H. Staffing
    I. Funding the PES system
    J. Key programmes and benefit schemes
  • Chapter 3. Unemployment Insurance in the United States: Regular and Extended Benefits
    A. Unemployment insurance
    B. Basic aspects of funding unemployment insurance
    C. UI tax rates and experience rating
    D. Coverage and eligibility under UI
    E. Disqualifications, denials and adjudication issues
    F. UI benefit duration and levels
    G. Trends in receipt of UI benefits
    H. Fraud control and performance monitoring
    I. Recent innovations in the UIS system
  • Chapter 4. Job-broking and the Development of One-stop Centres
    A. Quantitative indicators of job-broking activities
    B. Job-broking and employment policy
    C. Federally-led initiatives to improve the employment service
    D. Implementation of one-stop concepts: the cases of Connecticut and Wisconsin
    E. Staffing issues
    F. Job-seeker registration, counselling and access to services
    G. Vacancy registration
    H. Job matching
    I. Employer outreach
    J. Vocational guidance and special services
    K. Performance measures for one-stop centres
    L. Private placement agencies
  • Chapter 5. Profiling Unemployed Job-seekers: Identifying those At-risk of Long-term unemployment for Early Intervention and Assistance
    A. Introduction
    B. Profiling procedures in the United States
    C. Profiling in Connecticut and Wisconsin
    D. How does profiling work in practice?
    E. How do profiled job-seekers fare in the labour market?
    F. Improving the performance of profiling: key issues that must be addressed
  • Chapter 6. Employment and Training Programmes
    A. Introduction
    B. Overview of spending and participation in active labour market programmes (ALMPs)
    C. The administrative context of ALMPs
    D. The Job Training Partnership Act
    E. Participation and outcomes from JTPA in programme year 1995
    F. How well does JTPA work: evidence from evaluations
    G. Other training programmes for adults
    H. Other youth programmes
    I. Wage subsidy programmes
  • Chapter 7. Welfare Reform in Connecticut and Wisconsin
    A. Introduction
    B. Welfare reform initiatives
    C. Welfare programmes in Connecticut and Wisconsin
    D. Issues and challenges under welfare reform
    Annex 7A. Performance Bonuses under TANF
    Annex 7B. Wisconsin Welfare Reform Chronology
  • Chapter 8. Conclusions
    A. Introduction
    B. Unemployment Insurance
    C. The labour exchange function and one-stop centres
    D. Profiling
    E. Employment and training programmes
    F. Welfare reform

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