Pension systems

Pensions at a Glance 2017

OECD and G20 Indicators

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Published on December 05, 2017

Also available in: German, French

The 2017 edition of Pensions at a Glance highlights the pension reforms undertaken by OECD countries over the last two years. Moreover, one special chapter focuses on flexible retirement options in OECD countries and discusses people’s preferences regarding flexible retirement, the actual use of these programs and the impact on benefit levels.This edition also updates information on the key features of pension provision in OECD countries and provides projections of retirement income for today’s workers. It offers indicators covering the design of pension systems, pension entitlements, the demographic and economic context in which pension systems operate, incomes and poverty of older people, the finances of retirement-income systems and private pensions.


Editorial Flexibility or the comeback of early retirement?
Executive summary
Recent pension reforms
Flexible retirement in OECD countries
Design of pension systems5 chapters available
Architecture of national pension systems
Basic, targeted and minimum pensions
Mandatory earnings-related pensions
Current retirement ages
Future retirement ages
Pension entitlements9 chapters available
Methodology and assumptions
Gross pension replacement rates
Gross replacement rates: public vs private, mandatory vs voluntary schemes
Tax treatment of pensions and pensioners
Net pension replacement rates
Net pension replacement rates: mandatory and voluntary schemes
Gross pension wealth
Net pension wealth
Gross pension replacement rates for different earnings profiles
Demographic and economic context6 chapters available
Life expectancy
Old-age dependency ratio
Employment rates of older workers
Effective age of labour market exit
Expected years after labour market exit
Incomes and poverty of older people3 chapters available
Incomes of older people
Old-age income poverty
Average wage
Finances of retirement-income systems4 chapters available
Mandatory pension contributions
Public expenditure on pensions
Pension-benefit expenditures: public and private
Long-term projections of public pension expenditure
Private pensions and public pension reserve funds7 chapters available
Coverage of private pension plans
Structure of private pension systems
Assets in private pension plans and public pension reserve funds
Allocation of private pension assets and of assets in public pension reserve funds
Investment performance of private pensions plans and public pension reserve funds
Operating costs of private pension systems and fees charged to members
DB funding ratios
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press and overview information

Press release: Pensions reforms have slowed in OECD countries but need to continue

Communiqué de presse : Les réformes des retraites ont ralenti leur rythme dans les pays de l'OCDE mais doivent se poursuivre

Infographic: Key facts & figures

Social Media:


Country specific findings 


country profiles of pension systems

OECD countries:

Non OECD countries: 



OECD Pensions-at-Glance indicators in OECD.Stat browser



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