Migrants help to maintain the size of the labour force
Contribution of international migration to growth in the labour force, 2000-10
Over the past decade, new immigrants accounted for 70% of the increase in the labour force in Europe, and 47% in the United States. This role of migration in maintaining the size of the labour force in many countries is expected to become more important as more baby-boomers retire.
(cf. part II)
Decline in labour demand: the driving force behind the fall in migration
Permanent migration, temporary labour migration and free movement in OECD countries, 2006-10
The types of migration that are most affected during economic crises are free movement and temporary labour migration. Permanent migration to the United States fell by 8% in 2010. It dropped by only 3% to European OECD countries – excluding intra-European movements – and rose to Canada. Recent national data suggest that migration picked up further in 2011 in the United States, Australia, New Zealand and in most European OECD countries, with the exception of Italy, Spain and Sweden.
(cf. part I.A)
Growing qualified inflows from Asia
Share of high-educated among Asian migrants living in OECD countries, 2005/06
Migrants from Asia comprise a large share of skilled migration and of international students in OECD countries. But the situation varies between countries. In the future, as Asia develops, it is not so obvious however, that OECD countries will be able to rely on this steady stream of workers.
(cf. part III)
Young migrants particularly hit by the crisis
Unemployment rates by place of birth and age, 2011
In the short-term, integration of immigrants remains one of the main challenges in OECD countries, mainly in Europe. The poor employment situation in a number of OECD countries has placed a number of migrant groups at risk of marginalisation. Young migrants were particularly hit by the crisis. Between 2008 and 2011, the number of youth not in employment, education or training, so-called NEETs, rose sharply among migrants.
(cf. part I.B)