Skills for growth: human capital composition and economic performance
This report analyses the institutions and structures that govern labor migration in Asia. It considers the important role of governments and other stakeholders in both labour-destination countries such as Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, and labour-sending countries such as India, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Key issues are the extent to which these structures provide an orderly process for the movement of people between countries and whether the rights and the welfare of workers are protected.
Back to the future of work, policy discussion at the Forum on the Future of Work and Labour Ministerial, 14 and 15 January 2016.
The OECD series Making Integration Work draws on key lessons from the OECD’s work on integration, particularly the Jobs for Immigrants country reviews series. The objective is to summarise in a non-technical way the main challenges and good policy practices to support the lasting integration of immigrants and their children for selected key groups and domains of integration. Each volume presents ten lessons and examples of good practice, complemented by synthetic comparisons of the integration policy frameworks in OECD countries. This first volume deals with refugees and others in need of protection, referred to as humanitarian migrants.
The digital revolution, globalisation and rapid population ageing are changing profoundly the types of jobs needed and the way we work, and may lead to even more dramatic changes over the coming decades. Will the many unemployed ever find a job again with the skills they have today in new world of work? Where are new jobs being created and what do they look like?
Colombia has made major economic and social advances in recent years. The combination of strong economic growth and policies targeted at the most vulnerable groups improved considerably the living standards of the Colombian population. Today, the country enjoys higher employment and labour force participation rates than the average of OECD countries and unemployment is steadily declining. Nevertheless, despite these positive trends, deep structural problems remain. Labour informality is widespread, the rate of self-employment is high and many employees have non-regular contracts. Income inequality is higher than in any OECD country and redistribution through taxes and benefits is almost negligible. In addition, half a century of internal conflict and violence has displaced a significant part of the population, and many of them are living in extreme poverty. Despite considerable progress, violence continues to be a challenge and also affects trade union members and leaders. The Colombian Government has undertaken important reforms in recent years to address these labour market and social challenges, and the efforts are gradually paying off. However, further progress is needed to enhance the quality of jobs and well-being for all. The main trust of this report is to support the Colombian Government in tackling labour market duality, generate trust between the social partners, develop inclusive and active social policies, and get the most out of international migration.
On 15 January 2016 Ministers from over 40 countries will gather at the OECD Headquarters in Paris, France, for the OECD Employment and Labour Ministerial Meeting. The Ministerial meeting will take place under the chairmanship of Ireland, with Chile, France and Germany as Vice-Chairs.
Back-to-back with the 2016 OECD Labour Ministerial meeting, a Policy Forum on the Future of work will take place to discuss how digitisation is shaping the world of work and the implications for skills and labour market policy.
Ten years after the introduction of publically-funded universal health insurance, the Mexican health system finds itself at a critical juncture. Unquestionably, some measures of health and health system performance have improved: those previously uninsured now use health services more often, whilst numbers reporting impoverishing health expenditure having fallen from 3.3% to 0.8%. Other indicators, however, remain worrying. Rates of survival after heart attack or stroke are markedly worse than in other OECD countries. Prevention is a particular concern: with 32% of the adult population obese, Mexico ranks as the second most obese nation in the OECD and almost 1 in 6 adults are diabetic. Other key metrics imply deep-rooted inefficiencies in the system: administrative costs, at 8.9% of total health spending, are the highest in the OECD and have not reduced over the past decade. Likewise, out-of-pocket spending has stuck at nearly 50% of total health spending - the highest in the OECD - and implies that individuals feel the need to visit private clinic despite having health insurance. In short, Mexico’s massive public investment in its health system has failed to translate into better health and health system performance to the extent wished and a programme of continued, extensive reform is needed. This report sets out the OECD’s recommendations on the steps Mexico should take to achieve this.
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This edition of Migration Policy Debates scrutinises the factors that facilitate human trafficking, as well as the smuggling routes to OECD countries. It synthesises available evidence and reviews existing policy tools for tackling such crime.