Health policies and data

Help Wanted? Providing and Paying for Long-Term Care


Table of contentsKey data

Country notes and highlightsHow to obtain this publication

Help Wanted?

‌Click on the cover for a free preview



As life expectancy pushes into the late 70s for men and well into the 80s for women, ever more people want help in order to be able to live their lives to the full for as long as possible.  How will demographic and labour market trends affect the supply of family and friends available to care for us? Can we rely on family carers as the sole source of support for frail seniors? Should family carers and friends be better supported, and if so how? Can we attract and retain care workers -- is it just a matter of paying them better? Will public finances be threatened by the cost of providing care in the future? What should be the balance between private responsibility and public support in care-giving? Can we reduce costs by improving efficiency of long-term care services?

ISBN: 978 92 64 0975 82 (print)

ISBN: 978 92 64 0977 59 (pdf)

336 pages, 20 tables, 56 graphs

Publication date:
June 2011


8-page Policy Brief

Summary and conclusions


Available in French, under the title "Besoin d'aide ? La prestation de services et le financement de la dépendance".


This report received financial assistance from the European Commission

Download the Executive summary (anche in italiano)


Table of contents


Chapter 1:

   Help Wanted? Chapter 1: Long-term Care: Growing Sector, Multifaceted Systems

Chapter 2:

   Help Wanted? Chapter 2: Sizing Up the Challenge Ahead: Future Demographic Trends and Long-term Care Costs

Chapter 3:

   Help Wanted? Chapter 3: The Impact of Caring on Family Carers

Chapter 4:


 Help Wanted? Chapter 4: Policies to Support Family Carers

Chapter 5:

   Help Wanted? Chapter 5: Long-Term Care Workers: Needed but Often Undervalued

Chapter 6:

   Help Wanted? Chapter 6: How to Prepare for the Future Long-term Care Workforce?

Chapter 7:

   Help Wanted? Chapter 7: Public Long-term Care Financing Arrangements in OECD Countries

Chapter 8:

   Help Wanted? Chapter 8: Private Long-term Care Insurance: A Niche or a “Big Tent”?

Chapter 9:

   Help Wanted? Chapter 9: Where To? Providing Fair Protection Against Long-term Care Costs and Financial Sustainability

Chapter 10:


 Help Wanted? Chapter 10: Can We Get Better Value for Money in Long-term Care?


“WHO recognizes that long-term care represents a major challenge for all countries in the world, with important implications for economic development and for the health and well-being of older people. This well-documented book provides a comparative analysis of the common challenges and diverse solutions OECD countries are adopting to respond to the growing demand for long-term care services, and particularly its implications for financing and labour markets. It provides much needed evidence to guide policy makers and individuals.”
Dr. John Beard, Director, Department of Ageing and Life Course, World Health Organization


“This carefully researched book offers invaluable data and insights into the organization and financing of long-term care in OECD countries. The book is an indispensable resource for anyone interested in international long-term care.”
Dr. Joshua M. Wiener, Distinguished Fellow and Program Director of RTI’s Aging, Disability, and Long-Term Care Program, United States


Key data on long-term care

Click on the graph to access the data or download tables and figures from the publication.


Public and private LTC expenditure in the OECD, 2008 and 2050 


Note: Private LTC spending is unavailable for some OECD countries

Source: Help Wanted Policy Brief, © OECD 2011


Country notes and highlights


Overviews of the long-term care situation in most OECD countries are available here. The notes are available in PDF format, in English unless mentioned otherwise.


  Australia*   Austria

  Belgium: in English and in French

  Canada: in English and in French

  Czech Republic   Denmark
  Estonia   Finland

  France*: in English and in French

  Germany*: in English and auch auf Deutsch

  Greece   Hungary
  Ireland   Israel

  Italy*: in English and anche disponibile in italiano

  Japan*: in English and in Japanese


  Luxembourg: in English and in French

  Mexico   Netherlands
  New Zealand   Norway
  Poland   Portugal
  Slovak Republic   Slovenia

  Spain: in English and también en español


  Switzerland: in English and in French

  United Kingdom*

  United States*  

 * including policy highlights



How to obtain this publication


Readers can access the full version of Help Wanted? Providing and Paying for Long-Term Care choosing from the following options:

  • Subscribers and readers at subscribing institutions can access the online edition via OECD iLibrary, our online library.
  • Non-subscribers can purchase the PDF e-book and/or paper copy via our Online Bookshop.
  • Government officials with accounts (subscribe) can go to the "Books" tab on OLIS.
  • Access by password for accredited journalists.