Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs

Benefits and Wages: Statistics



Excel files last updated: August 2017


Benefit generosity


By how much does family income drop during unemployment?  Net replacement rates show the proportion of net income in work that is maintained after job loss:


An alternative perspective on benefit generosity is provided by Gross replacement rates which compare unemployment benefits received when not working to wages earned when employed. Due to limitations of this series, explained in detail in the file, the series will no longer be updated regularly.

 Net Replacement rate chart

Work incentives


Does it pay to work?  When taking up a job or working more hours, a significant portion of these new earnings can be effectively "taxed away", through higher income taxes or reduced benefit entitlements. Some families may gain little or nothing from taking up a low-paid job or working more. For parents of young children, high childcare costs can have similar effects and may hinder a return to work:

Taxben Participation Tax Rate chart

The Impact of Childcare costs data contains OECD indicators of the net cost of childcare and their impact on work incentives for parents of young children..

Income adequacy


To what extent do social transfers alleviate poverty risks? Minimum-income safety-net benefits may not be enough to take families out of poverty. But without government support, low-paid jobs may also leave families below commonly used poverty thresholds:

Taxben Income Adequacy chart

Some net income estimates and their components – taxes and social security contributions paid, benefits received and labour earnings - for different family types and labour market situations, are now also available on OECD.STAT.




For further information: contact


Further statistics by the OECD Social Policy Division: