Information on Short-Chain PFCs and Other Alternatives

 

Available Alternatives

Potential Effects of Alternatives on Human Health and Environment (Studies)

Exposure

Environmental Fate and Transport

Emmissions

Monitoring

Hazard and Risk Assessment

Other Pertinent Research Information

 

Available Alternatives

  • US-EPA New Chemical Review of Alternatives for PFOA and Related Chemicals

http://www.epa.gov/oppt/pfoa/pubs/altnewchems.html

 

Potential Effects of Alternatives on Human Health and Environment (Studies)

(i)         Smith et al. (1960). Screening of fluorine-containing compounds for acute toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2, 5458.

(ii)        NICNAS, Department of Health and Ageing, Australian Government (2005) Existing chemical hazard assessment report: potassium perfluorobutane sulfonate. http://www.nicnas.gov.au/Publications/CAR/Other/Potassium_Perfluorobutane_Sulfonate_PDF.pdf

(iii)      Poulsen et al. (2005) More environmentally friendly alternatives to PFOS-compounds and PFOA. Environmental Project no.1013, Danish Ministry of the Environment.
http://www2.mst.dk/common/Udgivramme/Frame.asp?http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publications/2005/87-7614-668-5/html/helepubl_eng.htm

(iv)      Sonneveld et al. (2007). Perfluoroalkyl acids have no endocrine disrupting activities via human steroid hormone receptors as determined by a panel of CALUX bioassays. Organohalogen Compounds 69, 674/1674/4

(v)        Chengelis et al. (2009) A 90-day repeated dose oral (gavage) toxicity study of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in rats (with functional observational battery and motor activity determinations). Reprod Toxicol  27(34), 342351.

(vi)      Chengelis et al. (2009) Comparison of the toxicokinetic behavior of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and nonafluorobutane-1-sulfonic acid (PFBS) in cynomolgus monkeys and rats. Reprod Toxicol  27(34), 400406.

(vii)     Loveless et al. (2009) Toxicological evaluation of sodium perfluorohexanoate. Toxicology  264(12), 3244.

(viii)   D'eon et al. (2010). Determining the molecular interactions of perfluorinated carboxylic acids with human sera and isolated human serum albumin using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Environ Toxicol  Chem, 29(8), 16781688.

(ix)      Eriksen et al (2010): Genotoxic potential of the perfluorinated chemicals PFOA, PFOS, PFBS, PFNA and PFHxA in human HepG2 cells. Mutat Res-Envir Muta 700(12), 3943.

(x)        Iwai et al. (2010) Ecotox and Pk findings for ammonium perfluorohexanoate (APFHx). Poster # P2, in PFAA Days III, June 810, 2010, U.S. EPA Research Triangle Park Campus.

(xi)      Himmelstein et al. Sodium perfluorohexanoate pharmacokinetics in rats during & after 90-day oral gavage administration. Poster #956, in Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting

(xii)     Iwai (2011) Toxicokinetics of ammonium perfluorohexanoate. Drug Chem Toxicol 34(4), 341346.

(xiii)   Iwai et al. (2011) A 24-month oral combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in rats, Poster #54, in STP Annual Symposium, June 1923, 2011, Denver, USA

(xiv)   Gannon et al. (2011) Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [1-14C]-perfluorohexanoate ([14C]-PFHx) in rats and mice. Toxicology 283(1), 5562.

(xv)     Gordon (2011) Toxicological evaluation of ammonium 4,8-dioxa-3H-perfluorononanoate, a new emulsifier to replace ammonium perfluorooctanoate in fluoropolymer manufacturing. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 59(1), 6480.

(xvi)   Iwai et al. (2012) Combined developmental and perinatal/postnatal reproduction oral toxicity study of ammonium perfluorohexanoate in mice. Poster # 2372, in 51st Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting, 2012, March 1115, 2012, San Francisco, USA

(xvii)  Cassone et al. (2012) In ovo effects of perfluorohexane sulfonate and perfluorohexanoate on pipping success, development, mRNA expression, and thyroid hormone levels in chicken embryos. Toxicol Sci 127(1), 216224

(xviii)The Stockholm Convention secretariat (2012) Technical paper on the identification and assessment of alternatives to the use of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in open applications. (UNEP/POPS/POPRC.8/INF/17)

 

Exposure

No information received yet.

 

Environmental Fate and Transport

No information received yet.

 

Emmissions

No information received yet.

 

Monitoring

No information received yet.

 

Hazard and Risk Assessment

Other Pertinent Research Information

No information received yet.