Glossary

 

FBPs:  Fluorotelomer-based polymers.

 

FCs:  Fluorochemical.

 

Fluorochemical:  A general, nonspecific, term used to describe broadly all chemicals containing the element fluorine; specifically, the term is used most commonly to describe small (1-8 carbon length) fluorinated molecules which are most often used for refrigeration, as fire suppression agents and as specialty solvents. Some fluorochemicals are potential precursors to PFOA, PFOS, PFAC, and or/PFAS.

 

Fully fluorinated (or perfluorinated):  A fully fluorinated or perfluorinated chemical is one in which all the carbon-hydrogen bonds in a chain have been replaced by carbon-fluorine ones. All fully fluorinated chemicals are man-made. Example include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

 

Fluorinated chemical:  A general, non-specific, term used synonymously with fluorochemical.

 

Fluorotelomer alcohol:  A general term which describes a class of alcohols of general structure F(CF2CF2)nCH2CH2OH where n is an integer.

 

Fluorinated (organic) polymer:  A general term used to describe a polymer which has a hydrocarbon backbone (polyamide, polyester, polyurethane, etc.) which is appended a fluorinated carbon chain, also known as a fluorinated alkyl chain; an example would be a polymer such as - [CH2CH(C(O)OCH2CH2(CF2)8F)]n-.

 

Fluorinated (organic) surfactant:  A term to describe a surface active, low molecular weight (<1000), substance which contains fluorinated carbons; the term Fluorosurfactant is non-specific but often used synonymously; an example is F(CF2)6CH2CH2SO3-NH4+ .

 

Fluoropolymer (FP):  A term used to describe a polymer which has fluorine attached to the majority of carbon atoms which comprise the polymer chain backbone.  Common fluoropolymers are:  polytetrafluoroethylene (PFTE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), fluorinated ethylenepropylene (FEP), etc.  Fluoropolymers are typically high molecular weight polymers.

 

Fluoropolymer dispersion:  A term used for a mixture composed of small solid fluoropolymer particles dispersed in an aqueous medium.

 

Fluorosurfactant:  A non-specific, general term used to describe a surface active, low molecular weight (<1000), substance where carbons bear fluorine in place of hydrogen.

 

Fluorotelomer:  See telomer.

 

Fluorotelomer epoxide:  A is a general term which describes a class of epoxides of the general structure F(CF2CF2)nCH2CHCH2O.

 

Fluorotelomer olefin:  A is a general term which describes a class of alkenes of the general structure F(CF2CF2)nCH=CH2.

 

FTOHs:  Fluorotelomer alcohol is a general term which describes a class of alcohols of the general structure F(CF2CF2)nCH2CH2OH.

 

Higher homologue chemicals:  PFOA is an eight-carbon chain length chemical. Chemicals similar in structure to PFOA but with nine or more carbons in the chain would be higher homologues of PFOA.

 

Homologue:  One of a series of compounds, each of which has a structure differing regularly by some increment (number of carbons, presence of a CH2 group) from adjacent members of the group.

 

Impurity:  A chemical substance that is unintentionally present with another chemical substance.

 

PFAA:  Perfluoroalkyl acids.

 

Partially fluorinated chemical:  A partially fluorinated chemical or fluorinated chemical is a chemical containing the element fluorine. Some of these fluorinated chemicals are potential precursors to PFOA, PFOS, PFAC, and/or PFAS. A precursor is a chemical that can be transformed to produce another chemical. For example, some residual monomer chemicals from the telomer manufacturing process, such as telomer alcohols and telomer iodides, are PFOA precursors because they may remain in the final product and can be transformed into PFOA.

 

PFAC:  Perfluoroalkyl carboxylate is a generic term used to describe any fully fluorinated carbon chain length carboxylic acid, including higher and lower homologues as well as PFOA.

 

PFAC-related:  Chemicals which may be salts of PFAC or chemicals that degrade to form PFAC. These related chemicals include, but are not limited to: carboxylates, amines, ethers, iodides, phosphonic/phosphinic compounds, alcohols, esters, phosphates, sulfonates, siloxanes, thioethers, urethanes, and acrylates.

 

PFAS:  Perfluoroalkyl sulfonate is a generic term used to describe any fully fluorinated carbon chain length sulfonic acid, including higher and lower homologues as well as PFOS.

PFAS-related:  Chemicals which may be salts of PFAS or chemicals that degrade to form PFAS. These related chemicals include, but are not limited to: carboxylates, amines, ethers, iodides, phosphonic/phosphinic compounds, alcohols, esters, phosphates, sulfonates, siloxanes, thioethers, urethanes, and acrylates.

 

PFBA:  Perfluorobutanoic acid is a fully fluorinated, four-carbon chain length carboxylic acid (C4) (CAS RN 375-22-4)

 

PFCs:  Perfluorinated chemicals in which all carbon-hydrogen bonds in a chain have been replaced by carbon-fluorine bonds. Examples include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFC term also refers to PFC precursors, chemicals which contain a perfluoroalkyl moiety attached to other atoms that may not be perfluorinated, and have potential to transform to produce PFCs.

 

PFCAs:  Perfluorinated carboxylic acids and their salts are a series of substances whose anion has the general structure of CF3(CF2)nCOO-. Certain members of this class, including the PFCA with 8 carbons, called perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA or C8), are manufactured as a processing aid to produce fluoropolymers.

 

PFNA:  Perfluorononanoic acid is a fully fluorinated, nine-carbon chain length carboxylic acid (C9) (CAS RN 375-95-1).

 

PFOA:  Perfluorooctanoic acid is a fully fluorinated, eight-carbon chain carboxylic acid (C8) (CAS RN 335-67-1) sometimes used to refer to the anionic salt form.

 

PFOA-related:  Chemicals which may be salts of PFOA or chemicals that can degrade to PFOA. These related chemicals include, but are not limited to: carboxylates, amines, ethers, iodides, phosphonic/phosphinic compounds, alcohols, esters, phosphates, sulfonates, siloxanes, thioethers, urethanes, and acrylates.

 

PFOS:  Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid is a fully fluorinated, eight chain sulfonic acid (CAS RN 1763-23-1) sometimes used to refer to the anionic salt form.

 

PFOS-related:  Chemicals which may be salts of PFOS or chemicals that can degrade to PFOS. These related chemicals include, but are not limited to: carboxylates, amines, ethers, iodides, phosphonic/phosphinic compounds, alcohols, esters, phosphates, sulfonates, siloxanes, thioethers, urethanes, and acrylates.

 

Polyfluoro/polyfluorinated:  Describes a substance where many but not all hydrogen atoms attached to carbon atoms are replaced with fluorine atoms.

 

Perfluoro/perfluorinated:  Describes specifically a substance where all hydrogen atoms attached to carbon atoms are replaced with fluorine atoms where C-H becomes C-F.

 

Perfluoro acids:  Perfluorinated acids, describes the family of chemicals including PFOS and PFOA. These are fully (or "per-") fluorinated compounds in which all hydrogen atoms on the carbon chain have been replaced with fluorine atoms.

 

Perfluoroalkylated substance:  A substance which bears a perfluorocarbon, also known as a perfluororoalkyl, functional group.  F(CF2)n-X where n is an integer and X is not a halogen, or hydrogen.

 

Perfluorinated product:  Is a tem used for perfluorinated of polyfluorinated chemical product that may contain PFOA, Long chain PFCA’s, precursors, or mixtures of these substances.  Perfluorochemical products are fluoropolymers and fluoroopolymer dispersions, and fluorotelomer-based substances.

 

Perfluorinated surfactant:  A term used to describe a surface active, low molecular weight (<1000), substance where all carbons bear fluorine in place of hydrogen; the term Fluorosurfactant is less specific but misused synonymously; a perfluorinated example is F(CF2)6SO3-NH4+; while a fluorinated surfactant might be F(CF2)4CH2SO2-NH4+.

 

Precursor:  A chemical that can be transformed to produce another chemical. For example, some residual monomer chemicals from the telomer manufacturing process, such as telomer alcohols and telomer iodides, are PFOA precursors because they may remain in the final product and can be transformed into PFOA.

 

PTFE:  Polytetrafluoroethylene is a fluoropolymer that is resistant to heat and chemicals and is used in making Teflon®. It has an extremely low coefficient of friction, and is used as a coating on cookware, gaskets, seals, and hoses.

 

Surfactant:  A detergent compound that promotes lathering.

Telomer (or fluorotelomer):  A fluorinated compound produced by a specific polymer-making process called telomerization. Telomers are not technically perfluorinated, because not all of the carbon-hydrogen bonds are replaced with carbon-fluorine ones: the telomer terminates in a CH2CH2 group. Most telomers are relatively small polymers, and are used in surface treatment products to impart soil, stain, grease, and water resistance to carpets, textiles, paper, stone, and leather. Some are used as high performance surfactants in products that must flow evenly, such as paints, coatings, and cleaning products, fire-fighting foams for use on liquid fuel fires, or the extremely thin engineering coatings used in semiconductor manufacture.

 

Telomer Based Product:  Chemical substances that have the fluoroalkyl portion of the molecule derived from telomers manufactured from low molecular weight polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene.

 

Telomer biodegradation testing:  Studies to determine whether fluorotelomers could break down in the environment to release PFOA from their polymer backbones, not just from contamination of the polymer with residual monomer chemicals.