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Publications & Documents


  • 8-July-2020

    English

    Labour Market Relevance and Outcomes of Higher Education in Four US States - Ohio, Texas, Virginia and Washington

    Across OECD countries, higher education graduates enjoy higher employment rates and earnings than workers with only an upper secondary qualification. However, not all graduates find jobs that make full use of their skills and help them launch rewarding careers, and employers in some economic sectors point to a lack of qualified graduates. Policy makers are concerned about the current alignment of higher education systems to labour markets, and are increasingly uneasy about the future of work and the resilience of higher education systems in uncertain economic times. This report, which focuses on four US states – Ohio, Texas, Virginia and Washington – is the third of a series of country-specific reviews conducted as part of the OECD project on the labour market relevance and outcomes of higher education. The report offers a comprehensive review of graduate outcomes and policies supporting alignment between higher education and the labour market in the four participating states in 2018-19, an overview of the US labour market and higher education context, and a range of policy examples from across OECD jurisdictions to help improve the alignment of higher education and the labour market.
  • 7-July-2020

    English

    PIAAC Thematic Review on Adult Learning

    This report focuses on the adult learning data that was collected as part of the OECD Survey of Adult Skills between 2012 and 2016, which has been a core activity of the ongoing OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The objectives are to: present the data on adult learning made available by PIAAC; provide an international and comparative overview of the extent of adult learning of different types along with trends, where possible, for countries and economies that have so far participated in PIAAC; reveal international and comparative patterns on the distribution of adult learning within participating countries and economies, focusing on who is and who is not participating in terms of the types of jobs they work in as well as their socio-demographic profile; assess empirically the relationship between some types of adult learning and economic as well as social outcomes; discuss systemic features of adult learning systems and their relationship with selected economic and social policy instruments; and to draw out implications of the results in relation to the continued measurement of adult learning.
  • 6-July-2020

    English

    Do students learn in co-operative or competitive environments

    The benefits of co-operative behaviours have been broadly documented in various social contexts, including neighbourhoods, hospitals, companies and in education. In education, when students, teachers, parents and the school principal know and trust each other, work together, and share information, ideas and goals, students – particularly disadvantaged students – can benefit. However, co-operation and teamwork come with potential drawbacks too. Tasks might not be divided fairly and efficiently; team members sometimes work on tasks for which they are unsuited or that they dislike; some group members may freeride on their teammates’ efforts; and co-ordinating tasks may be too complex and time-consuming. Evidence also suggests that competition can improve academic performance and speed in learning, if only because competition can be thrilling and enjoyable.
  • 6-July-2020

    English

    Education in Saudi Arabia

    Saudi Arabia has embarked upon an unprecedented reform agenda known as Vision 2030, which aims to create a dynamic, diverse and sustainable economy. To meet the demands of a 21st century, knowledge-based labour market, Saudi Arabia must develop a highly-skilled population, which puts education at the centre of Vision 2030. Saudi Arabia has made tremendous progress in expanding access to education and has achieved universal enrolment rates at primary and lower secondary levels. Nevertheless, most young Saudi Arabians leave school without having mastered the basic competences needed for success in future academic and professional endeavours. There are also widening disparities between students in terms of their access to high quality education and their subsequent learning outcomes. This review, developed in co-operation with the Ministry of Education of Saudi Arabia, analyses the strengths and challenges of the country's education system and makes recommendations to help improve student learning. It will be of interest to policy makers in Saudi Arabia and international audiences who wish to learn about the country's ambitious reform efforts.
  • 2-July-2020

    English

    Quality Early Childhood Education and Care for Children Under Age 3 - Results from the Starting Strong Survey 2018

    The experience of children under age 3 with early childhood education and care (ECEC) is crucial for their learning, development and well-being and for parents’ return to work. Despite increasing recognition of the importance of ECEC for the youngest children, little is known about this sector. The OECD Starting Strong Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS Starting Strong) is the first international survey that focuses on the ECEC workforce. It asks staff and leaders about themselves and their settings, including the practices they use with children and their views on the sector. This thematic report focusses on ECEC for children under age 3, an option of the Survey in which four countries (Denmark, Germany, Israel and Norway) participated. The report answers many questions that are important for parents, actors in the field, and policy makers.
  • 1-July-2020

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Viet Nam - Towards an Integrated, Transparent and Sustainable Economy

    Since the launch of the Ðổi Mới economic reforms in 1986, Viet Nam has achieved tremendous economic and social progress. Today, it is well integrated on global markets, has enjoyed robust growth, and has seen remarkable poverty reduction. With its recent successful fiscal consolidation, its attractiveness as a trading destination and rapidly growing domestic middle class, Viet Nam faces a window of opportunity for its transition to an inclusive market economy. Three guiderails should form the basis of this strategy: integration, transparency and sustainability. Better integration between state-owned enterprises, foreign investors and domestic private companies in open markets will be key to future performance gains. Partnerships between universities and enterprises would also help upgrade skills and create innovation, thereby making the integration durable. Transparency and performance of government are prerequisites for trust and a key lever to enhance efficiency and productivity in most areas of the state and the economy. A more sustainable development path will need better management of water, air and energy to address climate change. Reforms of the social security system can also ensure that no one is left behind, especially in the face of a fast ageing population.
  • 30-June-2020

    English

    Making the Most of Technology for Learning and Training in Latin America

    Digitalisation is transforming the world of work and societies, and creating opportunities to learn and develop skills in new ways, times and places. The adoption and use of digital technologies can help Latin American countries close the skills gap with more advanced economies. Making the Most of Technology for Learning and Training in Latin America demonstrates how Latin American countries can realise the potential of new technologies for skills development in schools and all stages of life. It identifies barriers to accessing ICT infrastructure and connectivity limitations in Latin America, and provides recommendations on how they can be overcome to ensure that all students and citizens can benefit from new technologies for learning. The report explores the relationship between technology use in initial education and students’ performance in Latin America, and how policies can best support teachers as digital tools enter their classrooms. Digitalisation provides new opportunities for lifelong learning and this report examines the potential of open education and MOOCs in reaching those adults who are most in need of training in Latin American countries.
  • 26-June-2020

    English

    Foreign language teachers as ambassadors of multilingualism and international exchange - Evidence from TALIS 2018

    In today’s world, globalisation, technological innovation and human migration have made interactions between people from different countries and cultures almost inevitable. In this context, being able to communicate in more than one language has become a key skill with important economic benefits for individuals and economies. However, the relevance of learning other languages goes beyond improving communication: it also promotes the understanding of the complexity of cultures and languages and allows students to learn about other visions of the world. These are important prerequisites for active participation in a globalised world. Therefore, learning a foreign language can act as a powerful tool to increase intercultural skills, enhance global co-operation and discover new and innovative ways of thinking and working together. Being aware of these benefits, many countries are placing increased emphasis on foreign language teaching.
  • 23-June-2020

    English

    OECD Skills Strategy Northern Ireland (United Kingdom) - Assessment and Recommendations

    Skills are the key to shaping a better future and central to the capacity of countries and people to thrive in an increasingly interconnected and rapidly changing world. Megatrends such as globalisation, technological advances, and demographic change are reshaping work and society, generating a growing demand for higher levels and new sets of skills. OECD Skills Strategy projects provide a strategic and comprehensive approach to assess countries’ skills challenges and opportunities and help them build more effective skills systems. The OECD works collaboratively with countries to develop policy responses that are tailored to each country’s specific skills needs. The foundation of this approach is the OECD Skills Strategy Framework, which allows for an exploration of what countries can do better to: 1) develop relevant skills over the life course; 2) use skills effectively in work and in society; and 3) strengthen the governance of the skills system. This report, 'OECD Skills Strategy Northern Ireland (United Kingdom): Assessment and Recommendations', identifies opportunities and makes recommendations to reduce skills imbalances, create a culture of lifelong learning, transform workplaces to make better use of skills, and strengthen the governance of skills policies in Northern Ireland.
  • 23-June-2020

    English

    OECD Secretary-General's Report to Ministers 2020

    The OECD works on finding evidence-based solutions to a range of social, economic and environmental challenges, promoting 'Better Policies for Better Lives'. The global spread of coronavirus in 2020 has made the commitment to this motto all the more relevant. This edition of the OECD Secretary-General's Report to Ministers outlines the main achievements of the OECD in 2019. It describes the OECD’s work on economics, employment, education, health, inequalities, the environment, tax and many other fields in the context of a rapidly changing world. It includes the activities of the Secretary-General and his office, as well as those of OECD directorates, agencies, special entities and advisory committees. The OECD is one of the world’s largest and most trusted sources of comparable statistical data and research. It is also a unique forum and knowledge hub for exchange of experiences, best-practice sharing, and advice on public policies and global standard-setting. This year will mark the 60th anniversary of the Organisation, and this will be the opportunity to reflect on the past, and develop a vision for the future. More than ever, we need evidence-based policies geared towards building societies and economies that are more resilient, inclusive and sustainable.
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