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Publications & Documents


  • 1-October-2020

    English

    Achieving the New Curriculum for Wales

    Wales (United Kingdom) is on the path to transform the way children learn, with a new curriculum aimed to prepare its children and young people to thrive at school and beyond. The new curriculum for Wales intends to create a better learning experience for students, to engage teachers’ professionalism, and to contribute to the overall improvement of Welsh education. An education policy is only as good as its implementation, however, and Wales turned to the OECD for advice on the next steps to implement the curriculum. This report analyses the progress made with the new curriculum since 2016, and offers suggestions on the actions Wales should take to ready the system for further development and implementation. The analysis looks at the four pillars of implementation — curriculum policy design, stakeholders' engagement, policy context and implementation strategy — and builds upon the literature and experiences of OECD countries to provide tailored advice to Wales. In return, the report holds value not only for Wales, but also for other education systems across the OECD looking to implement a curriculum or to enhance their implementation processes altogether.
  • 15-September-2020

    English

    Education in Ireland - An OECD Assessment of the Senior Cycle Review

    Ireland is undertaking a review of their senior cycle (upper secondary education) led by the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA). It aims at collecting the views of all relevant stakeholders to identify the strengths and challenges of senior cycle in its current form, and identify priority issues and actions to move forward. As part of OECD’s implementing education policies project, an OECD team was invited to support the review of Ireland’s senior cycle. The team has carried out the assessment presented here and provided strategic advice based on four analytical aspects: smart policy design, inclusive stakeholder engagement, conducive context and a coherent implementation strategy. Each one of these dimensions matters to ensure that the review of senior cycle can move forward based on evidence and with strong support from stakeholders.
  • 10-July-2020

    English

    Education responses to COVID-19: Implementing a way forward

    During the COVID-19 crisis, countries have implemented a range of measures to curb the educational impact of the pandemic. In times of emergency, speed in the implementation of responses is key, but evidence of what may work is limited, and constraints on resources and capacity are binding. A framework providing a coherent implementation perspective can save time and result in better outcomes. As countries explore ways forward to reopen schools and design new models of education that expand the borders of the physical schools through technology, this paper proposes a framework that can help governments structure the implementation strategy of their evolving education responses to COVID-19. It consists of a set of general recommendations and guiding questions that can inform the development of mid-term education strategies and, more broadly, help build school systems’ resilience for potential education emergencies.
  • 10-July-2020

    English

    Education responses to COVID-19: an implementation strategy toolkit

    This toolkit provides education system leaders with an implementation framework and questions to consider in the development of their education responses to the COVID-19 crisis. It builds on an analysis of education policy actions taken during the initial stages of the COVID-19 crisis. What dimensions need to be considered for implementing education responses to COVID-19? Lessons learned show that emergency strategies such as those triggered by COVID 19 need to take into consideration some constraints: fixed initial contextual factors, limited evidence available and no time for capacity development. Implementing an education response to the COVID-19 pandemic that supports equity, quality and wellbeing should rely on the capacity of schools and education professionals as well as technological resources available. The engagement of stakeholders to develop a broadly supported overarching solution may need to be limited to key actors initially and integrated in later stages, as there is an optimal trade-off between involvement and reactivity. But the policy can actually be based on schools having leeway to design their own approaches, following the shaping of a national or regional vision, generic health and educational guidelines, and the provision of support to those in need to manage inequities. An effective implementation strategy will bring together these dimensions and make them actionable in terms of timeframes, responsibilities, tools and available resources.
  • 8-July-2020

    English

    Labour Market Relevance and Outcomes of Higher Education in Four US States - Ohio, Texas, Virginia and Washington

    Across OECD countries, higher education graduates enjoy higher employment rates and earnings than workers with only an upper secondary qualification. However, not all graduates find jobs that make full use of their skills and help them launch rewarding careers, and employers in some economic sectors point to a lack of qualified graduates. Policy makers are concerned about the current alignment of higher education systems to labour markets, and are increasingly uneasy about the future of work and the resilience of higher education systems in uncertain economic times. This report, which focuses on four US states – Ohio, Texas, Virginia and Washington – is the third of a series of country-specific reviews conducted as part of the OECD project on the labour market relevance and outcomes of higher education. The report offers a comprehensive review of graduate outcomes and policies supporting alignment between higher education and the labour market in the four participating states in 2018-19, an overview of the US labour market and higher education context, and a range of policy examples from across OECD jurisdictions to help improve the alignment of higher education and the labour market.
  • 7-July-2020

    English

    PIAAC Thematic Review on Adult Learning

    This report focuses on the adult learning data that was collected as part of the OECD Survey of Adult Skills between 2012 and 2016, which has been a core activity of the ongoing OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The objectives are to: present the data on adult learning made available by PIAAC; provide an international and comparative overview of the extent of adult learning of different types along with trends, where possible, for countries and economies that have so far participated in PIAAC; reveal international and comparative patterns on the distribution of adult learning within participating countries and economies, focusing on who is and who is not participating in terms of the types of jobs they work in as well as their socio-demographic profile; assess empirically the relationship between some types of adult learning and economic as well as social outcomes; discuss systemic features of adult learning systems and their relationship with selected economic and social policy instruments; and to draw out implications of the results in relation to the continued measurement of adult learning.
  • 6-July-2020

    English

    Do students learn in co-operative or competitive environments

    The benefits of co-operative behaviours have been broadly documented in various social contexts, including neighbourhoods, hospitals, companies and in education. In education, when students, teachers, parents and the school principal know and trust each other, work together, and share information, ideas and goals, students – particularly disadvantaged students – can benefit. However, co-operation and teamwork come with potential drawbacks too. Tasks might not be divided fairly and efficiently; team members sometimes work on tasks for which they are unsuited or that they dislike; some group members may freeride on their teammates’ efforts; and co-ordinating tasks may be too complex and time-consuming. Evidence also suggests that competition can improve academic performance and speed in learning, if only because competition can be thrilling and enjoyable.
  • 6-July-2020

    English

    Education in Saudi Arabia

    Saudi Arabia has embarked upon an unprecedented reform agenda known as Vision 2030, which aims to create a dynamic, diverse and sustainable economy. To meet the demands of a 21st century, knowledge-based labour market, Saudi Arabia must develop a highly-skilled population, which puts education at the centre of Vision 2030. Saudi Arabia has made tremendous progress in expanding access to education and has achieved universal enrolment rates at primary and lower secondary levels. Nevertheless, most young Saudi Arabians leave school without having mastered the basic competences needed for success in future academic and professional endeavours. There are also widening disparities between students in terms of their access to high quality education and their subsequent learning outcomes. This review, developed in co-operation with the Ministry of Education of Saudi Arabia, analyses the strengths and challenges of the country's education system and makes recommendations to help improve student learning. It will be of interest to policy makers in Saudi Arabia and international audiences who wish to learn about the country's ambitious reform efforts.
  • 2-July-2020

    English

    Quality Early Childhood Education and Care for Children Under Age 3 - Results from the Starting Strong Survey 2018

    The experience of children under age 3 with early childhood education and care (ECEC) is crucial for their learning, development and well-being and for parents’ return to work. Despite increasing recognition of the importance of ECEC for the youngest children, little is known about this sector. The OECD Starting Strong Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS Starting Strong) is the first international survey that focuses on the ECEC workforce. It asks staff and leaders about themselves and their settings, including the practices they use with children and their views on the sector. This thematic report focusses on ECEC for children under age 3, an option of the Survey in which four countries (Denmark, Germany, Israel and Norway) participated. The report answers many questions that are important for parents, actors in the field, and policy makers.
  • 1-July-2020

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Viet Nam - Towards an Integrated, Transparent and Sustainable Economy

    Since the launch of the Ðổi Mới economic reforms in 1986, Viet Nam has achieved tremendous economic and social progress. Today, it is well integrated on global markets, has enjoyed robust growth, and has seen remarkable poverty reduction. With its recent successful fiscal consolidation, its attractiveness as a trading destination and rapidly growing domestic middle class, Viet Nam faces a window of opportunity for its transition to an inclusive market economy. Three guiderails should form the basis of this strategy: integration, transparency and sustainability. Better integration between state-owned enterprises, foreign investors and domestic private companies in open markets will be key to future performance gains. Partnerships between universities and enterprises would also help upgrade skills and create innovation, thereby making the integration durable. Transparency and performance of government are prerequisites for trust and a key lever to enhance efficiency and productivity in most areas of the state and the economy. A more sustainable development path will need better management of water, air and energy to address climate change. Reforms of the social security system can also ensure that no one is left behind, especially in the face of a fast ageing population.
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