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This paper takes stock of informal employment in Russia analysing its incidence and determinants. Using the regular 2003-11 waves and an informality supplement of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) it develops several measures of informal employment and demonstrates that the incidence varies widely across the different definitions.
The NZ labour market is among the most flexible in the OECD, and outcomes for its young people have been among the best. However, labour-market opportunities are heavily determined by initial education, where New Zealand’s system is also successful and innovative in many ways.
Young people have been hit hard by unemployment during the Irish recession. While much research
has been undertaken to study the effects of the recession on overall labour market dynamics, little is known about the specific effects on youth unemployment and the associated challenges.
Important challenges for the future of Austrian well-being arise from demographic and environmental trends. The ageing of the population calls for a fair balance between life-time pension contributions and entitlements, drawing on the recent pension reform.
Austria enjoys strong material well-being and high quality of life. Steady convergence with top GDP
per capita levels translated into decisive improvements in household disposable incomes while significant redistribution has ensured low income inequality and poverty.
Labour market reform to improve growth prospects and reduce inequality is a top priority in the face of rapid population ageing and a dualistic labour market. Sustaining output growth requires policies to mitigate the impact of rapid population ageing by increasing labour inputs from under-employed segments of the population.
The rapid expansion of education in Korea is exceptional and has played a key role in its economic
development. Sustaining Korea’s growth potential in the face of demographic headwinds requires further
improving the education system to boost productivity growth.
Belgium has a good record in delivering accessible care, but adaptation to population ageing will be
complicated by the fragmentation of responsibilities in the healthcare system and a strong reliance on
Restoring fiscal sustainability is a major challenge in Slovenia. Yet, the performance in terms of expenditure control is poor and public expenditure on social spending increased briskly during the crisis, significantly more than on average across the OECD.
This paper derives estimates of the efficiency of welfare spending in Slovenia and the other OECD countries from data envelopment analysis based on model specifications used in earlier OECD studies.