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The OECD gratefully acknowledges the support of our partners in this work: the JPMorgan Chase Foundation, the Jacobs Foundation (Switzerland) and the National Center on Education and the Economy (United States).

Career education that works: an economic analysis using the British Cohort Study (2017) by Elnaz Kashefpakdel and Chris Percy.

Wage premiums at age 26 linked to teenage participation in school-managed career talks undertaken at age 14-16 with premiums increasing with the number of career talks undertaken and student perceptions of their utility. 

Employer engagement in British secondary education wage earning outcomes experienced by young adults (2014) by Anthony Mann and Chris Percy.

Wage premiums at age 19-24 linked to teenage participation in school-managed episodes of employer engagement (short work placements, career talks, mentoring, enterprise activities). 

Socialised social capital? The capacity of schools to use careers provision to compensate for social capital deficiencies among teenagers (2018) by Anthony Mann, Elnaz Kashefpakdel and Chris Percy.

Wage premiums at age 26 linked to teenage social networks and participation in school-managed career talks wherein premiums are greatest for (typically more disadvantaged) young people who do not anybody who will help them get a job when they leave school.

Early occupational aspirations and fractured transitions a study of entry into NEET status in the UK (2010) by Scott Yates, Angel Harris, Ricardo Sabates and Jeremy Staff.

NEET (Not in Education Employment and Training) outcomes at age 16-19 linked to career uncertainty and misalignment at age 16. 

Working it out: career guidance and employer engagement (2018) by Pauline Musset and Lucia Kureková (OECD).

Drawing on PISA data to illustrate how teenage career aspirations are distorted by gender, socio-economic background and migrant status


Policy Papers

Investing in Career Guidance

(December 2019) A short leaflet jointly published by Cedefop, the European Commission, European Training Foundation, International Labor Organisation, OECD and UNESCO explaining the unprecedented importance of career guidance and what makes for effective practice.

Career guidance policy and practice in the pandemic

(December 2020) The results of an international survey of career guidance policy officials and practitioners exploring the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Résultats Clés

Resultados clave


Examples of Practice

Finland - School-to-Work Group Method: enabling structured critical exploration of labour market entry through employer engagement to enhance transitions into work and psychological well-being. 

New Zealand - WE3 Continuum and Activities: enabling understanding of the relationship between classroom and workplace through critical exploration and engagement with the labour market.

United States – Ethnographies of work: enabling student agency and challenging inequality through critical investigation of the labour market.