Reports


  • 16-May-2018

    English

    Rethinking Urban Sprawl - Moving Towards Sustainable Cities

    This report provides a new perspective to the nature of urban sprawl and its causes and consequences. This perspective, which is based on the multi-dimensionality of urban sprawl, sets the foundations for the construction of new indicators to measure the various facets of urban sprawl. The report uses new datasets to compute these indicators for more than 1100 urban areas in 29 OECD countries over the period 1990-2014. It then relies on cross-city, country-level and cross-country analyses of these indicators to provide insights into the current situation and evolution of urban sprawl in OECD cities. In addition, the report offers a critical assessment of the causes and consequences of urban sprawl and discusses policy options to steer urban development to more sustainable forms.
  • 4-May-2018

    English

    Skills Strategy Implementation Guidance for Portugal - Strengthening the Adult-Learning System

    Raising skills is critical to Portugal’s economic success and social well-being. As globalisation and digitalisation are transforming how people work, how societies function and how individuals interact, Portugal needs to equip its entire population with strong skills so that they can benefit from new opportunities.Portugal has put education and skills at the forefront of the political agenda for many years, but more than half of adults have not completed upper secondary education. With the population ageing rapidly and a growing skills divide between generations, Portugal needs to further strengthen its adult-learning system. To make change happen, Portugal will need a clear vision for the adult-learning system and a strong partnership between all stakeholders – all levels of government, education and training providers, employers, trade unions, the non-profit sector and learners.This report outlines areas where the accessibility, flexibility and quality of the adult-learning system can be improved, where governance and financing mechanisms can be strengthened, and provides examples of international and national good practice to help achieve these objectives. The report provides a series of concrete actions to help Portugal improve the adult-learning system and in turn enhance economic growth and social cohesion.
  • 30-April-2018

    English

    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Viet Nam 2018

    This review uses the OECD Policy Framework for Investment to present an assessment of the investment climate in Viet Nam and to discuss the challenges and opportunities faced by the government of Viet Nam in its reform efforts. It includes chapters on foreign investment trends and performance, the entry and operations of foreign investors, the legal framework for investment, corporate governance and competition policy, tax reforms, investment promotion and facilitation, infrastructure connectivity, investment framework for green growth and policies to promote and enable responsible business conduct.
  • 27-April-2018

    English

    The Productivity-Inclusiveness Nexus

    Historically low productivity gains and record high inequality are major challenges for policy makers around the world. Both concerns have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis but took roots well before and reflect fundamental challenges with the way our economies function.
     
    This report proposes a new comprehensive approach to promote better productivity performance and reduce inequalities. It not only gathers the most recent empirical evidence on the main factors behind slowing productivity gains and rising or persisting inequalities but also suggests possible common foundations and linkages between these two trends. It stresses the risk of a vicious cycle setting in, where individuals with fewer skills and poorer access to opportunities are confined to unproductive and often precarious jobs. This reduces aggregate productivity and widens inequality. The report focuses on how to expand the productive assets of an economy by investing in the skills of its people and providing an environment where all firms have a fair chance to succeed, including in lagging regions. It draws preliminary conclusions on the type of policy packages that are needed and on their implications for policy making. It also sets an agenda for future research to deepen empirical evidence and make concrete country-specific policy recommendations.
  • 19-April-2018

    English

    Thailand’s achievements and challenges as it aspires to become an inclusive high-income country

    From a feudal trading hub connecting South with East Asia in the 18th and 19th centuries, Thailand has developed into a rapidly modernising and more urban economy. The second half of the 20th century saw the rapid expansion in manufacturing and services, which underpinned its transformation into an upper-middle-income country.

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  • 18-April-2018

    English

    OECD Economic Survey of Costa Rica: Research Findings on Productivity

    This volume collects four studies that were prepared as background research to the 2018 OECD Economic Survey of Costa Rica. Using firm-level, trade and sectorial data, these studies seek to provide insights into the trends in productivity and its determinants in Costa Rica. This volume represents a collaborative effort by a team of researchers from the OECD Secretariat and official agencies of Costa Rica. 
  • 18-April-2018

    English

    Japan: Promoting Inclusive Growth for an Ageing Society

    Japan has achieved a comparatively high level of well-being: skill levels are high, unemployment is low and life expectancy at birth is the highest in the OECD. Since its launch in 2013, Abenomics has had a positive effect on the economy, and per capita output growth has picked up. However, to achieve inclusive growth and greater well-being, Japan needs to address important challenges to foster fiscal sustainability, narrow the productivity gap with leading OECD countries and manage the demographic transition. A new fiscal plan going beyond achieving a primary surplus should lay out concrete measures to raise revenues and control spending. As Japan’s population ages, using all available talent in the labour market and achieving gender equality are key to overcome labour shortages. Boosting productivity, which has been stagnant, will require increasing returns from R&D, capitalising on the digital economy, fostering the dynamism of SMEs, and reducing barriers to foreign direct investment and trade to promote greater integration into global value chains. Japan’s education system is one of the top performers in the OECD, but there is scope to further invest in teachers and schools. Finally, further action to foster green growth and environmental quality as well as effectively leveraging upcoming international sports events, such as the Rugby World Cup 2019 and the Olympic and Paralympic Games 2020, would also boost local development and inclusive growth. The complementarity of reforms needed to achieve inclusive and sustainable growth in in an aging society makes a compelling case for a comprehensive approach.
  • 17-April-2018

    English

    OECD Economic Surveys: Costa Rica 2018

    Costa Rica has achieved strong levels of well-being. However, many institutional obstacles are hampering more robust growth and the spreading of its gains more widely. Setting in motion a 'virtuous cycle' of inclusive growth will require reforms across several policy areas that present win-win opportunities in terms of equity and productivity improvements. Rebalancing spending towards early childhood and secondary education would improve outcomes and equity and also help increasing the low level of participation of women in the labour market. Costa Rica should move from the current emphasis on education spending towards outcome policy targets, supported by performance indicators. Policies to reduce labour market informality should continue, including greater enforcement of obligations to pay social security contributions and a gradual move to a smaller number of minimum wages. Eliminating unjustified exemptions from competition would boost productivity growth. Fiscal imbalances remain the major threat to growth and living standards in the medium term. A comprehensive fiscal reform package is needed to bring to a halt the fast rising debt-to-GDP ratio, including measures to increase tax revenues and curb spending, strengthen the budgetary framework with a new, operational fiscal rule and restrict earmarking.SPECIAL FEATURES: FISCAL POLICY; PRODUCTIVITY; INCLUSIVE GROWTH
  • 17-April-2018

    English

    Economic Survey of Costa Rica 2018

    The latest OECD Economic Survey of Costa Rica details the factors behind the strong socio-economic achievements of the past decades as well as the challenges remaining to ensure growth is both sustainable and more inclusive. It projects growth of around 3.7% for the 2018-19 period and lays out an agenda for achieving further transformation and greater convergence with OECD countries.

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  • 10-April-2018

    English

    Tunisia: reviving the process of economic convergence for the benefit of all Tunisians

    Tunisia is firmly committed to a process of democratisation that needs underpinning by economic reforms in order to guarantee an improved standard of living for all Tunisians.

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