This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the challenges confronting Chile’s centralised growth model and recommendations towards developing a more integrated territorial approach, capable of mobilising regional productivity catch-up potential in order to strengthen the role of regions and municipalities.
The Chilean government has launched an ambitious decentralisation agenda, aimed at empowering municipalities by providing them with the legitimacy, financial resources, human capacities and tools required to improve their autonomy and performance. This study seeks to assist the government by covering several dimensions, looking at municipal responsibilities, fiscal and human resources, equalisation mechanisms, local public service performance, citizen participation, and co-ordination mechanisms across levels of government.
This report contributes to the discussion of interconnections between scarce resources by highlighting the nexus between land, water and energy (the LWE nexus). It focuses on a dynamic, integrated, and disaggregated analysis of how land, water and energy interact in the biophysical and economic systems. The report provides projections for the biophysical and economic consequences of nexus bottlenecks until 2060, highlighting that while the LWE nexus is essentially local, there can be significant large-scale repercussions in vulnerable regions, notably on forest cover and in terms of food and water security.
The analysis is based on coupling a gridded biophysical systems model with a multi-regional, multi-sectoral dynamic general equilibrium modelling assessment. Numerical insights are provided by investigating a carefully selected set of scenarios that are designed to illustrate the key bottlenecks: one scenario for each resource bottleneck, plus two scenarios that combine all bottlenecks, with and without an overlay of climate change.
This report is the second edition of Tax Policy Reforms: OECD and Selected Partner Economies, which is an annual publication that provides comparative information on tax reforms across countries and tracks tax policy developments over time. This year’s report covers the tax reforms that were implemented, legislated or announced in 2016. Two non-OECD countries, Argentina and South Africa, have been included in this year’s edition, in an effort to progressively expand the scope of the publication to key partner economies. Monitoring tax policy reforms and understanding the context in which they were undertaken is crucial to informing tax policy discussions and to supporting governments in the assessment and design of tax reforms.
The National Accounts of OECD Countries, Financial Balance Sheets includes financial stocks (both financial assets and liabilities), by institutional sector (non-financial corporations, financial corporations, general government, households and non-profit institutions serving households, total economy and rest of the world) and by financial instrument. Data are based on the System of National Accounts 2008 (2008 SNA) for all countries except Chile, Japan and Turkey which are presented on the basis of the 1993 SNA.
The National Accounts of OECD Countries, Financial Accounts includes financial transactions (both net acquisition of financial assets and net incurrence of liabilities), by institutional sector (non-financial corporations, financial corporations, general government, households and non-profit institutions serving households, total economy and rest of the world) and by financial operation. Country tables are expressed in national currency. Data are based on the System of National Accounts 2008 (2008 SNA) for all countries except Chile, Japan and Turkey which are presented on the basis of the 1993 SNA.
The National Accounts of OECD Countries, Main Aggregates covers expenditure-based GDP, output-based GDP, income-based GDP, GDP per capita, disposable income, saving and net lending, population and employment. It includes also comparative tables based on purchasing power parities (PPPs) and exchange rates. Data are shown for 35 OECD countries and the Euro area back to 2008. Country tables are expressed in national currency. Data are based on the System of National Accounts 2008 (2008 SNA).
The monthly Main Economic Indicators (MEI) presents comparative statistics that provide an overview of recent international economic developments for the 35 OECD countries,* the euro area and a number of non-member economies.**
This indispensable and unique source of key short-term statistics is a vehicle for analysis for corporate planners, economists, academics, researchers and students. Using the most up-to-date, user-friendly tabular presentation, the indicators cover national accounts, business surveys and consumer opinions, leading indicators, retail sales, production, construction, prices, employment, unemployment, wages, finance, international trade and balance of payments.
* OECD countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States.
** Non-member economies: Brazil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, India, Indonesia, Lithuania, Russian Federation, South Africa
Following years of unsustainable economic policies, Argentina has undertaken a bold turnaround in policies, which has helped to stabilise the economy and avoid another crisis. Building on this reform progress should help lay the foundations to raise the material living standards and well-being of all Argentinians, including the most vulnerable. This Survey discusses the challenges ahead and the policy options to address these challenges. Improvements in the areas of regulation on product markets, labour markets, competition, taxes, infrastructure, education, trade policy and financial markets would streghten investment and productivity, which are the basis for sustainable income gains. Some of these reforms will involve adjustment costs as jobs will be lost in some firms and sectors and created in others, but well-designed policies can protect the poor and vulnerable from the burden of adjustment. A current focus on strengthening the social safety net and efforts to improve the quality of education are part of such policies, as is labour market support for affected workers. The benefits of stronger growth will depend on improving the distribution of income, which is currently very unequal and leaves one third of the population in poverty, with more at risk of falling into poverty. Efforts are also underway to reduce inequalities in the access to quality education. Public transfers to reduce inequality and poverty will continue to play an important role, together with stronger efforts to curb labour market informality.
SPECIAL FEATURES: PRODUCTIVITY; INCLUSIVE GROWTH
Following years of unsustainable economic policies, Argentina has undertaken ambitious reforms. Further wide-ranging structural reforms are needed to respond to challenges still lying ahead. Protecting the poor and ensuring that growth is inclusive and sustainable are key priorities.
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Israel disability pension note July 2017