The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new series on "Investing in Youth" which builds on the expertise of the OECD on youth employment, social support and skills. This series covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth labour market and VET system in Lithuania from an international comparative perspective, and offers tailored recommendations to help improve school-to-work transitions. It also provides an opportunity for Lithuania to learn from the innovative measures that other countries have taken to strengthen the skills of youth and their employment outcomes, notably through the implementation of a Youth Guarantee.
This 2016 OECD Economic Survey of Costa Rica examines recent economic developments, policies and prospects. The special chapters cover: Inclusive growth and Productivity.
This review assesses the Mexican pension system according to the OECD best practices and guidelines, and draws on international experiences and examples to make recommendations on how to improve it. It provides an international perspective on Mexico’s retirement income provision and a short and focused review of the Mexican pension system. The review covers all components of the pension system: public and private pension provision for public and private-sector workers. It provides recommendations, using OECD’s best practices in pension design, on how to improve the Mexican pension system and thus ameliorate the retirement income that people may receive from the pension system.
The Israeli economy has strong fundamentals, employment is rising, inflation is low, the external surplus is comfortable, and public finances are in good shape, but productivity performance is weak, income inequalities and poverty are high.
The annual Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India examines Asia’s regional economic growth, development and regional integration process. It focuses on the economic conditions of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also addresses relevant economic issues in People’s Republic of China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region. The 2016 edition of the Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India comprises three main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the medium-term economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. The second part consists of three chapters on “enhancing regional ties”, which is the special thematic focus of this edition. The third part includes structural policy country notes.
Kazakhstan’s economy and society have undergone deep transformations since the country declared independence in 1991. Kazakhstan’s growth performance since 2000 has been impressive, averaging almost 8% per annum in real terms and leading to job creation and progress in the well-being of its citizens. Extractive industries play an important role in the dynamism of the economy, but sources of growth beyond natural resource sectors remain underexploited. In the social arena, dimensions of well-being beyond incomes and jobs have not kept pace with economic growth.
Kazakhstan has set itself the goal of becoming one of the 30 most developed countries in the world by 2050. To sustain rapid, inclusive and sustainable growth and social progress, Kazakhstan will need to overcome a number of significant challenges. Natural-resource dependency, the concentration of economic clout and a fragile and underdeveloped financial sector limit diversification and economic dynamism. Widespread corruption still affects multiple state functions, undermines the business environment, meritocracy and entrepreneurial spirit. More generally, the state has limited capacity to fulfil some of its functions, which affects the delivery of public services like health and education, as well as the protection of the environment and the generation of skills.
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After a period of relatively robust growth that has allowed tens of millions of poorer households to join the global middle class, growth in Latin America has slowed recently. To close the still large gaps in living standards in relation to advanced economies, the region needs to significantly raise productivity growth while making sure that everybody has the opportunity to benefit.
Backed by strong economic growth Chile has made substantial progress in improving the quality of life of its citizens. Nonetheless, gaps in living standards vis-à-vis other OECD countries remain large and there are strong differences in well-being across the Chilean population. The government has introduced important steps to strengthen redistribution and improve equality of opportunities, including ambitious tax, labour and education reforms. But there is room to further improve the design of many policies to promote inclusiveness. Moreover, to sustain progress in well-being, Chile also needs faster productivity growth which stagnated until recently. This requires policies that foster competition, improve human capital accumulation and increase the diversification of the economy that still relies heavily on commodity exports.
Ageing has a wide range of impacts on individuals and society as a whole. But the consequences for health care, working life, income and well-being in general are not always what many people imagine. OECD Insights: Ageing: Debate the Issues discusses the problems, challenges, and opportunities that ageing brings to citizens and governments in developed and developing countries. Experts on demography, medical research, pensions, employment and other domains from inside and outside the OECD present their latest analyses and views on one of the most important trends shaping our societies.
Income inequality is rising. A quarter of a century ago, the average disposable income of the richest 10% in OECD countries was around seven times higher than that of the poorest 10%; today, it’s around 9½ times higher. Why does this matter? Many fear this widening gap is hurting individuals, societies and even economies. This book explores income inequality across five main headings. It starts by explaining some key terms in the inequality debate. It then examines recent trends and explains why income inequality varies between countries. Next it looks at why income gaps are growing and, in particular, at the rise of the 1%. It then looks at the consequences, including research that suggests widening inequality could hurt economic growth. Finally, it examines policies for addressing inequality and making economies more inclusive.