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Brazil has moved up the ranks of the world’s largest economies while making economic growth ever more inclusive.
After a decade of relatively strong growth, Latin America is facing headwinds associated with declining trade, a moderation in commodity prices and increasing uncertainty over external financial conditions, according to the latest Latin American Economic Outlook jointly produced by the OECD Development Centre, the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN ECLAC) and CAF - Development Bank of Latin America.
Urbanisation in China has long been held back by various restrictions on land and internal migration but has taken off since the 1990s, as these impediments started to be gradually relaxed. People have moved in large numbers to richer cities, where productivity is higher and has increased further thanks to agglomeration effects.
Annual inflation in the G20 area was 3.0% in the year to August 2013, down from 3.2% in the year to July 2013.
Real GDP in the OECD area increased by 0.5% in the second quarter of 2013, compared with 0.3% registered in the previous quarter.
There is no simple remedy for fixing the post-crisis global economy. But three key ingredients for sustainable long-term growth are jobs, equality and trust, said OECD Secretary-General in Washington.
Composite leading indicators (CLI) continue to signal improvements in growth in most major OECD countries with divergent patterns among large emerging economies.
The recent crisis has revealed large differences in external competitiveness between euro area member countries. Since nominal exchange rate devaluation is not an option for members of a currency area, governments in troubled member countries have been considering so-called fiscal devaluation, i.e. a shift from employers’ social security contribution to value added tax, as an alternative means to restore competitiveness.
This slowdown in the annual rate of inflation mainly reflects a sharp deceleration in energy price inflation, to 1.7% in the year to August.
Despite sustained efforts made in recent years to rein in budget deficits, a majority of OECD countries still face substantial fiscal consolidation needs. The choices made about which spending areas to curtail and which taxes to hike will have implications for near-term activity and long-term growth as well as for equity and the current account.