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With ongoing migration of the younger cohorts to urban areas, the increase in the old-age dependency ratio will be even more pronounced in rural than in urban areas.
In recent years, policymaking in China has put increasing emphasis on stemming the growth in inequality, which had been fairly steep since the 1980s.
Over the past decade, the share of jobs not controlled by the state has increased considerably, whilst employment in agriculture has declined, against the backdrop of ongoing urbanisation.
Chile has made impressive progress in educational attainment but still needs to catch up with OECD quality standards, and equity problems need to be addressed.
Israel’s education system produces many tertiary graduates but there are wide gaps across society and core skills at secondary school are weak.
Despite some best-practice policies, challenges remain in raising employment and lowering poverty, particularly among Arab-Israeli and Ultra-orthodox households.
The Swiss education system performs well in many important dimensions. Remaining challenges include raising education outcomes of children with modest socio-economic background. Removing barriers to higher tertiary attainment could also help raise productivity.
Individual elements in the Belgian tax system affect the growth process through different channels and to a varying degree.
Labour productivity decelerated due to a slowdown in capital deepening related to the trend increase in employment. Policies in the areas of research and development, innovation, entrepreneurship, product market regulation and taxation could raise productivity growth.
Human capital has traditionally been a strong point for the Danish economy, boosting income levels and the economy’s capacity to adjust, but there is room for improvement. Key education policy issues that need attention comprise learning outcomes and completion rates.