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Fiscal equalisation is a transfer of fiscal resources across jurisdictions to offset disparities in revenue raising capacity or public service cost. It covers on average 2.5% of GDP or 5% of total government expenditure across OECD countries.
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Russia, Norway and the Middle East are three regions that have distinct histories in energy policies.
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Conventional income distribution statistics subtract taxes from household income but do not take into account the distributional effects of the services financed through these taxes.
This paper finds that coherent regulatory policies can boost investment in network industries of OECD economies.
This paper assesses the quantitative importance of the working-age population broken down by age, gender and education in explaining differences in employment and productivity levels across countries.
Investment in network infrastructure can boost long-term economic growth in OECD countries. Moreover, infrastructure investment can have a positive effect on growth that goes beyond the effect of the capital stock.
Investment in network infrastructure – the energy, water, transport and telecommunication networks –which performs a vital role for the functioning of the economy, can contribute to raising growth and social welfare. But more is not always better.
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Against the background of a stronger need for reform in the wake of the crisis, this chapter assesses the progress that each country has made over the past five years in a broad range of structural policy areas where government action could boost long-term growth.
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OECD countries have taken a wide range of measures in response to the crisis, notably in the areas of infrastructure investment, taxes, the labour market, regulatory reforms and trade policy. This chapter assesses the expected effects of these measures on long-run income levels.
A characteristic feature of the Slovak housing market, and a consequence of the privatization programme initiated in the early 1990s, is the virtual absence of a private rental market.