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New Zealand’s living standards remain well below the OECD average. This is entirely attributable to persistently low labour productivity, which in turn is related to economic geography as well as structural policy factors.
This paper describes patterns and developments of regulation that potentially affect product market competition in OECD countries over the past decade. It uses the 2008 update and revision of the OECD indicators of product market regulation (PMR).
High expectations surrounded the two waves of eastward EU enlargement in 2004 and 2007, with the extension of the EU Internal Market being expected to deliver a substantial boost to economic growth in new and old member States alike.
There are local air pollution benefits from pursuing greenhouse gases emissions mitigation policies, which lower the net costs of emission reductions and thereby may strengthen the incentives to participate in a global climate change mitigation agreement.
Country Notes from OECD Economic Policy Reforms: Going for growth 2011 presenting OECD recommendations for structural reform priorities for individual countries.
Income distribution remains among the most equitable in the OECD although disparities have widened over the decade. While the tax and transfer system has been effective in reducing income inequality, changes to the income tax system in the early 1990s have contributed to rising disparities.
Climate change is expected to have significant implications for the world economy and for many areas of human activity. A main conclusion of the review is that there are large uncertainties, which are not fully reflected in existing estimates of global impacts of climate change in monetary units.
Maintaining high participation and employment in the face of the current recession and a rapidly ageing population are major challenges for policy makers. The recession of the early 1990s showed that high unemployment can leave long–lasting scars on labour markets.
The Indonesian labour market is segmented, with a majority of workers engaged in informal sector occupations, and earnings data are available only for formal sector workers (salaried employees). This posed problems for the estimation of earnings equations.
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Fiscal equalisation is a transfer of fiscal resources across jurisdictions to offset disparities in revenue raising capacity or public service cost. It covers on average 2.5% of GDP or 5% of total government expenditure across OECD countries.