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Concern that unilateral greenhouse gas emission reductions could foster carbon leakage and undermine the international competitiveness of domestic industry has led to growing calls for carbon-based border-tax adjustments (BTAs).
The South African economy is recovering from the crisis. Nevertheless deep structural reforms are necessary. The already strong macroeconomic policy framework should be further strengthened to resist excessive real appreciation.
European energy policy faces a number of interrelated challenges, including making the transition to a low–carbon economy, increasing cross–border competition in electricity and gas markets and diversifying Europe’s energy supply.
This paper proposes an analytical framework for assessing policies that will contribute to a better integration of environmental externalities in the pursuit of economic efficiency and growth objectives.
Sustainable development has a key place in Norway’s policy objectives. Norway can refine its indicators, and extend the use of economic incentives and evaluation in climate change and fisheries policy.
Israel has an impressive high-tech sector, low inflation and has weathered the downturn well but faces profound fiscal and socio-economic challenges.
Japan, a relatively energy-efficient country, has been active in combating climate change. Under the Kyoto Protocol, Japan is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 6% relative to 1990 over the period 2008-12.
To achieve its targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner, Japan should create a mandatory and comprehensive emission trading system, supplemented if necessary, by carbon taxes.
The EU needs to make the transition to a low–carbon economy, increase cross–border competition in electricity and gas markets and diversify Europe’s energy supply.
The Conference was an opportunity for high level experts, decision-makers and representatives from civil society to get together and discuss ways to address global climate change mitigation and adaptation issues in a consensual and econo