Costa Rica’s social and economic progress has been remarkable. A strong commitment towards trade openness has been key to attract foreign direct investment and move up in the global value chain. The effort to provide virtually universal health and pensions has translated into well-being indicators comparable with OECD standards in several dimensions. Costa Rica has also shown a strong commitment to preserving natural resources. Challenges to retain achieved successes and to continue converging towards higher living standards are substantial. The fiscal situation remains a critical vulnerability. Reform momentum has been extraordinary, as a significant number of legal initiatives linked to OECD accession have been finalised. This includes the fiscal reform approved in December 2018, a historic step to restore fiscal sustainability. These reforms would also facilitate the recovery from the COVID-19 shock. In the short term, addressing the coronavirus outbreak is the overarching priority. Once the recovery is established, full implementation of the fiscal reform is critical to restore medium-term fiscal sustainability, ensure macroeconomic stability and set the basis for higher incomes and wider spread improvements in living standards.