This paper is making use of the OECD product market regulation (PMR) database to measure the heterogeneity of product market regulation across countries for the whole economy, for the main subcomponents of the PMR indicator and for the internet economy.
Beyond usual determinants of trade such as GDP, distance, contiguity, free trade areas and language, this analysis mainly focuses on the role of product market regulation stringency and heterogeneity, and on the role of employment protection.
Ecosystem accounting is a relatively new and emerging field dealing with integrating complex biophysical data, tracking changes in ecosystems and linking those changes to economic and other human activity. Considering the increasing demand for statistics on ecosystems within analytical and policy frameworks on environmental sustainability, human well-being and economic growth and development, there has been an increasing urgency to advance this emerging field of statistics.
Although considerable experience exists in related areas of statistics such as land cover and land use statistics, the integration of these and other information into an ecosystem accounting framework is new. Also, there is considerable existing expertise in the ecosystem sciences and economics fields that is relevant, and again it is the focussing of these different areas of expertise on the proposed ecosystem accounting approach that is new.
SEEA-Experimental Ecosystem Accounting provides a synthesis of the current knowledge in this area and provides a starting point for the development of ecosystem accounting at national and sub-national levels. It represents an important step forward on ecosystem accounting, providing a common set of terms, concepts, accounting principles and classifications; an integrated accounting structure of ecosystem services and ecosystem condition in both physical and monetary terms; and the recognition of spatial areas as forming the basic focus for measurement.
This report compares the performance of the French innnovation systems with that of other countries and presents the conclusions of interviews with 30 key actors in the French research and innovation system. During the past ten years, this system has undergone profound changes, and the report highlights the governments plan to dynamise and reform the system.
The International Producer Price Index Manual, Theory and Practice (PPI Manual) published by the IMF in 2004 consituted a landmark for international standards on price measurement and contains detailed, comprehensive information for the compilation of producer price indices as well as an extensive coverage of the conceptual and theoretical issues. This second edition of the Methodological Guide for Developing Producer Price Indices for Services (SPPI Guide) is a complement to the PPI Manual in two ways: it focuses on service-specific aspects in the PPI compilation by developing further the conceptual framework and it adds detailed descriptions of PPI measurement for a wide range of individual service industries.
This second edition of the SPPI Guide has been jointly produced by the OECD, Eurostat, the members of a task Force with deleguates from 14 OECD/EU members countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Hungary, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, the United Kingdom and the United States)and in synergy with the Voorburg Group. Several countries contributed to the Guide by providing descriptions of service PPIs for individual industries, other countries were represented by national experts in at least one meeting of the Task Force.
This paper estimates the elasticities of government revenue and expenditure items with respect to the output gap for European Union (EU) countries. These elasticities are used by the European Commission, as part of the EU fiscal surveillance process, to calculate the semi-elasticity of the budget balance as a percentage of GDP with respect to the output gap.
The economy is adjusting to the post mining-boom era. Long-term prosperity requires macroeconomic policy settings and structural reforms to focus on ensuring a successful rebalancing of economic activity towards non-resource sectors.
In a majority of OECD countries, GDP growth over the past three decades has been associated with growing income disparities. To shed some lights on the potential sources of trade-offs between growth and equity, this paper investigates the long-run impact of structural reforms on GDP per capita and household income distribution.
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As environmental pressures continue to rise, governments throughout the OECD area have not been sitting back. If anything, the stringency of their policy measures has been increasing on the whole, not least to combat pollution and climate change. And as the evidence shows, stringent environmental policies can be introduced without hurting overall productivity.
Environmental policies seek to address market failures related to the protection of the environment. However, they may also increase barriers to entry and distort competition. If stringent environmental policies can be designed in a way that minimises such economic burdens, they can facilitate the achievement of economic and environmental goals and a cleaner growth model.