The extent of competition in product markets is an important determinant of economic growth in both developed and developing countries.
Growth and Sustainability in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa is based on the proceedings of a conference, organised by the OECD, on the growth performance of these large emerging-market economies.
Speaking at the launch of the Perspectives on Global Development 2010, Angel Gurría says that the centre of economic gravity is moving from West to East, from the industrialised economies to the large developing economies, particularly China and India. The latest forecasts anticipate that emerging and developing economies will account for nearly 60% of world GDP by 2030.
English, , 1,456kb
The world’s second-largest economy is helping drive the global recovery. But to sustain high growth and social cohesion, China needs to continue rebalancing its economy by boosting public spending on human capital and social services, and further reforming pensions and health care.
Chinese, , 597kb
如今，中国成为全球第二大经济体，它的需求对于拉动诸多国家的复苏而言发挥着举足轻重的作用。本文借鉴了OECD 几个星期前刚刚发布的中国经济全面评估报告，希望对中国发展高层论坛2010 年会“中国和世界经济：增长·调整·合作”有所贡献。中国的经济增长在不断刷新历史记 录，本文不仅着重探讨了这种增长表现得最为突出的特点，而且指出了中国希望维持快速增长时应该解决的问题。
In a speech given in Beijing, Angel Gurría recommended that China boost public spending on social infrastructure, including education, health, pensions and social assistance, in order to reduce inequalities, and suggested a more flexible exchange rate regime to avoid looming inflationary pressures.
China’s economy has outperformed all expectations, both over the long haul and, more recently, during the global Great Recession. But structural reforms are still needed in a number of areas such as increased social spending to improve living standards over the longer run, according to the OECD Secretary-General.
Speaking at the China development forum, Mr Gurría said that the world is now emerging from the deepest recession since the 1930s but he added that OECD countries need to face the challenge of ensuring that a strong, jobs-rich recovery takes hold and that potential growth can be restored and maintained over the longer term.
This paper uses the OECD’s Going for Growth framework, as well as other available evidence linking policies to economic performance, to identify key structural policy challenges in the BIICS for the years ahead.
With ongoing migration of the younger cohorts to urban areas, the increase in the old-age dependency ratio will be even more pronounced in rural than in urban areas.