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Apparent characteristics of the Hungarian banking market such as large profits and high margins suggest weak competitive pressures. Weak competition in turn, may reduce efficiency in a lack of pressures to converge to marginal cost and to stimulate managerial efforts to reduce X-inefficiency.
- Economic Survey of Hungary 2010
The estimated medium-term impact of Basel III implementation on GDP growth is in the range of -0.05 to -0.15 percentage point per annum.
The extent of competition in product markets is an important determinant of economic growth in both developed and developing countries.
- Economic Survey of China 2010
This paper provides a broad overview of policy goals and instruments and commonly used performance and policy indicators related to land transport.
In the 2000s, Turkey has enjoyed rapid catching–up. This was possible despite the adverse business environment, as the semi–formal and informal economy had a significant contribution to the expansion of the private sector.
- Economic Survey of Turkey 2010
Indonesia’s infrastructure is in poor shape, having suffered from protracted under-investment since the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s, and constraints growth potential.
- Economic Survey of Indonesia 2010
In this paper the recently updated product market regulation (PMR) indicators are extended beyond OECD member countries - including accession and enhanced engagement countries.
How can governments reap the potential benefits of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the provision of infrastructure?
Based on an endogenous growth model, we show that intermediate goods markets imperfections can curb incentives to improve productivity downstream.
Productivity growth has declined since the late 1990s, slowing the catching-up process. Structural reforms to strengthen competition, entrepreneurship and innovation would go a long way toward enhancing it.
- Economic Survey of Chile 2010