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The fiscal deficit has been gradually brought down even in the midst of a deep recession, pro-cyclical fiscal tightening continued. Fiscal sustainability is aimed to be restored by the recent reforms.
In spite of improvements, on various measures of health outcomes the United States appears to rank relatively poorly among OECD countries. Health expenditures, in contrast, are significantly higher than in any other OECD country.
Euro area entry calls for more fiscal flexibility to absorb cyclical shocks that cannot be dealt with by the common monetary policy. At the same time fiscal consolidation must not be put at risk, especially given rising ageing related costs.
Traditionally, the Norwegian compulsory education system has focused strongly on the linked goals of equal opportunities to learn, comprehensive and inclusive education.
English, , 799kb
This overview paper examines the financial crisis in light of past country experience and economic theory and draws preliminary policy recommendations.
Luxembourg is today one of the main international centres for investment funds. Besides the sector’s direct and indirect employment effects, the most important effect is the large tax revenue generating capacity of the sector, accounting directly for over 20% of aggregate tax revenues.
- Economic survey of Luxembourg 2008
The economic downturn and the financial turmoil are intensifying fiscal pressures. In the longer-term, progress towards fiscal sustainability and improving the quality of the public finances remain priorities.
In a context of fiscal surpluses,the Canadian government has been: markedly reducing corporate income and capital taxes; providing more personal tax relief especially at lower incomes and above all for saving; and cutting the federal value added tax (GST).
- Economic survey of Canada 2008
English, , 1,070kb
This paper proposes a framework for projecting public health and long-term care expenditures. It considers demographic and other (non-demographic) drivers of expenditures. The paper extends demographic drivers by incorporating death-related costs and the health status of the population. Concerning health care, the projections incorporate income and the effects of technology cum relative prices. For long-term care, the effects of
Italy has launched itself in the federalist direction by decentralising spending, regulatory and tax powers in the late 1990s and reinforcing growing lower level responsibilities with a constitutional reform in 2001, as discussed in this working paper.
- Economic survey of Italy 2007