Concern that unilateral greenhouse gas emission reductions could foster carbon leakage and undermine the international competitiveness of domestic industry has led to growing calls for carbon-based border-tax adjustments (BTAs).
This paper examines the effects of fiscal policy on output in the euro area.
Many propositions have been made to explain the increase in the German household saving rate since the year 2000 from an individual country perspective but most of them focus on partial aspects, as discussed in this working paper.
This paper considers the role of the automobile industry in the current cycle. It shows that the industry is economically important and its cycle is intertwined with business cycles.
This paper shows that world demand (to which trade has become more responsive in recent decades) can explain most of the collapse in world trade, but that tight credit conditions have likely amplified the short-term trade response.
This working paper begins with a discussion of the factors that made the banks, non-financial firms and households vulnerable to deterioration in global financial markets. It then describes the failure of the banks, its direct impact on government debt, the IMF SBA and the economic outlook.