Publications & Documents


  • 16-January-2014

    English

    Dividing the pie in Brazil: income distribution, social policies and the new middle class

    Brazil has made remarkable progress in reducing poverty and inequality. This reduction is explained by strong growth but also by effective social policies. Besides growth, public services and cash transfers have played the biggest role, the latter notably through the successful "Bolsa Familia" programme.

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  • 7-January-2014

    English

    The state of the banking sector in Europe

    This paper reviews the state of the banking sector in Europe. At the aggregate level, the empirical data suggest that the Baltics, Cyprus, Greece and Ireland, in particular, are hit by a strong decline in lending in the wake of the financial crisis.

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  • 20-August-2013

    English

    Japan's challenging debt dynamics

    This working paper presents the background and the details of the simulations behind Box 1.4 of the May 2013 OECD Economic Outlook. A small simulation model is used to evaluate the contribution that the three pillars of the government’s strategy – fiscal consolidation, growth-boosting structural reforms and higher inflation – could make to reversing the rise in Japan’s public debt ratio.

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  • 12-August-2013

    English

    The benefits and costs of highly expansionary monetary policy

    How far to go – and to remain – in the direction of highly expansionary monetary policy hinges on the balance of marginal benefits and costs of additional monetary easing and its expected evolution over time. This paper sketches a framework for assessing this balance and applies it to four OECD economic areas: the euro area, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.

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  • 12-August-2013

    English

    The effectiveness of monetary policy since the onset of the financial crisis

    In the wake of the Great Recession, a massive monetary policy stimulus was provided in the main OECD economies. It helped to stabilise financial markets and avoid deflation. Nonetheless, GDP growth has been sluggish and in some countries lower than expected given the measures taken, and estimated economic slack remains large.

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  • 5-August-2013

    English

    Deleveraging: challenges, progress and policies

    In the run-up to the financial crisis, indebtedness of households and non-financial businesses rose to historically high levels in many OECD countries; gross debt of financial companies rose dramatically relative to GDP. Much of the debt accumulation appears to have been based on excessive risk-taking and exceptional macro-economic conditions and therefore not sustainable.

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  • 1-July-2013

    English

    Italy and the euro area crisis: securing fiscal sustainability and financial stability

    Italy’s policy of fiscal consolidation and growth-friendly structural reforms has substantially improved its economic prospects, but the adverse sentiment that the country has faced in the sovereign bond market over the past years has deep roots.

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  • 26-June-2013

    English

    Banks’ restructuring and smooth deleveraging of the private sector in Slovenia

    Slovenia is facing the legacy of a boom-bust cycle that has been compounded by weak corporate governance of state-owned banks. The levels of non-performing loans and capital adequacy ratios compare poorly in international perspective and may deteriorate further, which could require significant bank recapitalisation.

  • 21-February-2013

    English

    Housing, financial and capital taxation policies to ensure robust growth in Sweden

    Extensive structural reforms since the early 1990s have strengthened the resilience of the Swedish economy to shocks.

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  • 16-January-2013

    English, PDF, 456kb

    Economics Department Policy Note No. 16: Debt and macroeconomic stability

    Public and private debt levels are very high by historical standards. OECD-wide total financial liabilities now exceed 1 000% of GDP. High debt levels can create vulnerabilities, which amplify and transmit macroeconomic and asset price shocks.

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