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This paper shows that world demand (to which trade has become more responsive in recent decades) can explain most of the collapse in world trade, but that tight credit conditions have likely amplified the short-term trade response.
This working paper discusses what policy makers should do in order to restore balance in the Icelandic economy and lay out the foundations for a sustainable recovery.
English, , 498kb
Data and supplementary tables from Economics Department working paper on Estonia and euro adoption: Small country challenges of joining EMU.
The ongoing financial crisis has put euro adoption at the top of Estonia's policy agenda. However, shocks affecting Estonia are only weakly synchronized with those of the euro area, and the structure of its economy also notably differs from the euro zone.
This working paper begins with a discussion of the factors that made the banks, non-financial firms and households vulnerable to deterioration in global financial markets. It then describes the failure of the banks, its direct impact on government debt, the IMF SBA and the economic outlook.
As attention shifts to fiscal consolidation, sustaining output growth will depend increasingly on private domestic demand, requiring reforms, particularly in the labour market and the non-manufacturing sector.
In contrast to the once prevailing norm of secrecy and opaqueness, transparency has now become one of the main features characterising the conduct of monetary policy.
Emergency measures adopted in the wake of the global crisis should be phased out once a recovery is in place, while adopting reforms to address chronic problems in the financial sector and increase efficiency.
The EU economy has experienced a deep economic slump. Ongoing financial reforms and the structural reform agenda must be pursued to make future crises less likely and improve growth prospects.
Iceland’s main banks, which had pursued risky expansion strategies, failed in the wake of the global financial crisis, plunging the economy into a deep recession. Prudential supervision needs to be improved.