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In the 2000s, Turkey has enjoyed rapid catching–up. This was possible despite the adverse business environment, as the semi–formal and informal economy had a significant contribution to the expansion of the private sector.
Indonesia has made considerable progress over the years in improving the social conditions of its population, especially among disadvantaged groups, not least by raising government spending and strengthening social protection programmes.
Chile has made impressive progress in educational attainment. Yet, despite recent improvements, outcomes, as measured by PISA results, still need to catch up with OECD standards and equity problems should be addressed.
Israel’s education system produces many tertiary graduates but there are wide gaps across society and core skills at secondary school are weak, as discussed in this working paper.
Despite some best-practice policies, challenges remain in raising employment and lowering poverty, particularly among Arab-Israeli and Ultra-orthodox households, as discussed in this working paper.
Rapid economic growth over the past two decades has substantially increased employment in Luxembourg, which has largely been met by in–flows of cross–border workers and, to a lesser extent, immigration.
Maintaining high participation and employment in the face of the recent recession and a rapidly ageing population are major challenges for policy makers in Finland.
The transition paths from plan to market have varied markedly across countries.
This paper assesses how the shock to aggregate unemployment as a result of the economic crisis may be transmitted to structural unemployment through hysteresis effects that occur through the rise in long-term unemployment.
This paper presents in summary form the findings that emerge from a study of 20 structural reform episodes in 10 OECD countries.