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After steady employment growth since the 1990s, Spain has experienced the sharpest increase in unemployment among OECD countries during the crisis, amplified by structural problems of the labour market.
After the onset of the crisis, unemployment in Sweden increased markedly, though much less than expected and than during the early 1990s, even as participation in the labour market held up well.
Public spending per pupil on pre-primary education is low in international comparison whereas spending on tertiary academic education per graduate is among the highest in the OECD.
This paper tests the hypothesis that, by giving people more voice in the government decision-making process, fiscal decentralisation fosters social capital, measured in terms of interpersonal trust.
In the 2000s, Turkey has enjoyed rapid catching–up. This was possible despite the adverse business environment, as the semi–formal and informal economy had a significant contribution to the expansion of the private sector.
Indonesia has made considerable progress over the years in improving the social conditions of its population, especially among disadvantaged groups, not least by raising government spending and strengthening social protection programmes.
Chile has made impressive progress in educational attainment. Yet, despite recent improvements, outcomes, as measured by PISA results, still need to catch up with OECD standards and equity problems should be addressed.
Israel’s education system produces many tertiary graduates but there are wide gaps across society and core skills at secondary school are weak, as discussed in this working paper.
Despite some best-practice policies, challenges remain in raising employment and lowering poverty, particularly among Arab-Israeli and Ultra-orthodox households, as discussed in this working paper.
Rapid economic growth over the past two decades has substantially increased employment in Luxembourg, which has largely been met by in–flows of cross–border workers and, to a lesser extent, immigration.