Italy has launched itself in the federalist direction by decentralising spending, regulatory and tax powers in the late 1990s and reinforcing growing lower level responsibilities with a constitutional reform in 2001, as discussed in this working paper.
Since 2004, the fiscal deficit has been brought down by over 5% of GDP to below the 3% limit in 2006. The government plans a more gradual reduction so that overall balance or surplus is reached no later than 2010. These and other points are discussed in this working paper.
This working paper discusses Austria’s innovation performance, its innovation policies, and general framework conditions for innovation and growth.