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With ongoing migration of the younger cohorts to urban areas, the increase in the old-age dependency ratio will be even more pronounced in rural than in urban areas.
Over the past decade, the share of jobs not controlled by the state has increased considerably, whilst employment in agriculture has declined, against the backdrop of ongoing urbanisation.
Overall, health outcomes in China have improved tremendously over the past three decades, especially thanks to the reduction in some traditional infectious diseases.
Policymaking in China has put increasing emphasis on stemming the growth in inequality. New indicators suggest that overall inequality has ceased to increase recently, and may even have declined.
Competition is now robust in many sectors but product market barriers remain high overall, which may hold back growth over the longer run.
Progressing towards universal, safe, affordable and effective health care will require wide ranging reforms of hospitals, insurance systems, better trained staff and changes in some relative prices
China’s population is set to age fast, owing to low fertility and rising life expectancy. With ongoing migration of the younger cohorts to urban areas the increase in the old-age dependency ratio will be more pronounced in rural than in urban areas. Very different pension arrangements exist across the country, with diverse and segmented systems in urban areas, belated retirement and low replacement ratios in rural areas, and special
Productivity growth has declined since the late 1990s, slowing the catching-up process. Structural reforms to strengthen competition, entrepreneurship and innovation would go a long way toward enhancing it.
This paper considers the role of the automobile industry in the current cycle. It shows that the industry is economically important and its cycle is intertwined with business cycles.
Israel has an impressive high-tech sector, low inflation and has weathered the downturn well but faces profound fiscal and socio-economic challenges.