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This paper reviews the empirical evidence on the link between environmental policy stringency and productivity growth, and the various channels through which such effects can take place.
As Mexico seeks to boost economic growth, pressures on its natural resources and environmental outcomes
may intensify, jeopardizing the sustainability of that growth and the well-being of the population.
The 2011 disaster and nuclear problems opened the door to a new energy policy, as they raised
fundamental questions about the electricity system’s ability to prevent and respond to accidents.
With strong economic growth overall and an increasingly important role as a regional economic centre, Luxembourg is experiencing mounting environmental pressures. This is mainly a result of a growing population and a rapid increase in transport, which is dominated by the car, as the number of workers commuting within Luxembourg and from across the border has risen rapidly.
China’s exceptional economic expansion has led to rising energy demand and pollution as well as other environmental pressures. Strong efforts by the government have moderated emissions of some types of air and water pollution from high levels but others, including greenhouse gas emissions, continue to rise. Poor air and water quality threaten human health, create other costs and reduce well-being.
Switzerland has low greenhouse gas emissions per capita as compared to other countries, which reflects the strong reliance on energy sources emitting few greenhouse gas emissions, especially in electricity generation, and little heavy industry.
The UK economy is gradually emerging from the recession and rebalancing away from overreliance on debt–finance and government spending towards more investment and exports. A wide ranging programme of fiscal consolidation and structural reforms aims at ensuring a sustainable and balanced recovery
Germany reduced greenhouse gas emissions substantially but remains an important emitter. Ambitious targets for climate change mitigation have been fixed and a broad range of environmental measures are being implemented.
Denmark’s green growth strategy focuses on moving the energy system away from fossil fuels and investing in green technologies, while limiting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
Korea, which has had the highest growth rate of greenhouse gas emissions in the OECD area since 1990, adopted an ambitious Green Growth Strategy in 2009.