This report analyses the incorporation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education in Latin America, focusing mainly on what is commonly referred to as “e-learning”. Access to and quality of higher education, financial constraints and relevance to the needs of the labour market are all crucial challenges facing the higher education system in the region. The study attempts to understand how ICTs and new learning and teaching practices can help to meet these challenges. The report also provides the results of a questionnaire showing the degree of implementation and the impact of e-learning on a group of higher education institutions in Latin America and includes a set of policy recommendations in this area.
Since the return to democracy in 1999, Nigeria has embarked upon an ambitious reform programme towards greater economic openness and liberalisation. As a result, gross domestic product growth picked up consistently, never going below 5% since 2003. Nigeria has become a top recipient of foreign direct investment in Africa, with inflows having surpassed those to South Africa since 2009. The federal government’s Transformation Agenda recognises private sector development as the main engine for economic growth and includes bold investment reforms. Growth has however not yet been translated into inclusive development and the investment climate still suffers from severe challenges.
This Investment Policy Review examines Nigeria’s investment policies in light of the OECD Policy Framework for Investment (PFI), a tool to mobilise investment in support of economic growth and sustainable development. It provides an assessment and policy recommendations on different areas of the PFI: investment policy; investment promotion and facilitation; trade policy; infrastructure investment; competition; corporate governance and financial sector development. It also includes a special chapter analysing the PFI in Lagos State. The Review follows on the request addressed by the Minister of Industry, Trade and Investment of Nigeria to the OECD Secretary-General in December 2011. It has been prepared in close co-operation with the Federal Government of Nigeria and Lagos State Government.
The Road Map for a Country-led Data Revolution was produced by the Informing a Data Revolution (IDR) project, which was launched by PARIS21 in 2014 and financed by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The project aims to help ensure the data revolution serves the post-2015 development agenda. Its focus is on National Statistical Systems (NSS) in developing countries. These are crucial to generating the data needed to promote development and reduce poverty and to monitor international development goals.
As well as this report, the IDR project has a number of other components, including the following:
- Country studies: A study of statistical systems in 27 countries and in-depth studies of 7 countries.
- Innovations Inventory: Inventories of innovative solutions that can help fill data gaps, reduce costs and improve efficiency.
- IDR Metabase: A database on the organisation, management and performance of national statistical systems to provide a baseline and a means for monitoring progress over time
For more on the methodology used to create this report, see Annex - Methodology.
This report reviews the experience of Panama in designing, implementing and evaluating innovation policy. It provides a comparative analysis of Panama’s innovation performance and reviews the design and implementation of the national innovation policy focusing on the National Plan (2010-2014). The review of the institutional setting, the policy mix and budget for innovation policy includes a comparison with the experience of two peer countries, the Dominican Republic and Uruguay.
The NEPAD-OECD Africa Investment Initiative aims to strengthen the capacity of African countries to design and implement reforms that improve their business climate and raise the profile of Africa as an investment destination.
The world has made good progress in improving global livelihoods. More than two billion people have emerged from extreme poverty over the last four decades. Other notable improvements include real increases in wages for unskilled workers, better life expectancy, greater gender equality and more widespread literacy. However, a number of daunting challenges threaten to undo this progress, particularly on the demographic and environmental fronts. While outlining the status of livelihoods today, this fascinating report enumerates the main emerging trends which will have a significant impact on livelihoods in the near future. It looks at a whole range of issues: economy, technology, demography, environment, security and governance. This book presents five possible future scenarios for livelihoods, whose positive or negative outcomes depend on how several emerging challenges are dealt with. It concludes with ideas for global, national and local action that hold significant promise for securing resilient livelihoods for all.
This 2015 OECD report on fragility contributes to the broader debate to define and implement post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It points out that addressing fragility in the new framework will be crucial if strides in reducing poverty are to be made. It argues in favour of proposed SDG 16 – promoting peaceful and inclusive societies – which aims to reduce violence of all forms.
The 2015 report differs markedly from previous editions as it seeks to present a new understanding of fragility beyond fragile states. It assesses fragility as an issue of universal character that can affect all countries, not only those traditionally considered “fragile” or conflict-affected. To do so, it takes three indicators related to targets of SDG 16 and two from the wider SDG framework: violence, access to justice, accountable and inclusive institutions, economic inclusion and stability, and capacities to prevent and adapt to social, economic and environmental shocks and disasters. It applies them to all countries worldwide, and identifies the 50 most vulnerable ones in all five dimensions. The group of countries most challenged on all five fronts differs little from the traditional list of fragile states and economies. Still, several middle-income countries with disproportionately high levels of crime-related violence, sub-national conflict or poor access to justice move into the spotlight.
The report concludes that making headway on the targets will require building a new portfolio of tools and interventions, and an understanding of the role the international community should and can play in assisting this process.
This online public consultation was held to gather interested stakeholders' comments on the draft Policy Framework for Investment currently being updated. The consultation ran until 25 February 2015.
Prepared at the request of the City of Venice, this report explores the implications for Venice of the adoption in 2014 of new legislation on the governance of metropolitan cities. It builds on the analysis of the OECD Territorial Review of Venice (2010), analysing a number of different "functional geographies" of the larger urban region centred on Venice. The report argues that, although the new legislation offers some opportunities for Venice to address local challenges, it is important to look beyond the Metropolitan City of Venice as defined in the new legislation and to pursue greater governance co-ordination across the larger city region that encompasses Padua, Treviso and Venice (PaTreVe). Co-operation in the fields of transport, land use, environmental protection and water resources management is particularly important; there are also significant opportunities in the fields of culture and tourism. The report also outlines a possible way forward for governance co-operation at the level of PaTreVe.
The report provides an outline of recent and likely future urbanisation trends and discusses the consequences. The world is in the middle of an urbanisation process that will cause urbanisation rates to rise from low double digit rates to more than 80% by the end of the century. It argues that this is both a great opportunity and a great challenge, as decisions taken today will affect the lifes of people for a long time to come. The report aims at explaining why cities exist, and what can make them prosperous and function well. It also discusses whether cities are good for residents, for the countries they are located in and for the global environment. The report argues that cities exist and grow because they are a source of economic prosperity and offer amenities that benefit their residents. It concludes that urbanisation is a process that needs to be shaped by policy makers to ensure that all benefit from it.