This strategic foresight report assesses the interaction between demographics, economic development, climate change and social protection in six countries in East Africa between now and 2065: Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. The report combines population projections with trends in health, urbanisation, migration and climate change and identifies the implications for economic development and poverty. It concludes by identifying policies to address seven grand challenges for social protection planners in national governments and donor agencies which emerge from the projections. These include: eliminating extreme poverty; extending social insurance in a context of high informality; the rapid growth of the working-age population, in particular the youth; adapting social protection to urban settings; protecting the poor from the effects of climate change; harnessing a demographic dividend; and substantially increasing funding for social protection.
Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in Cambodia is the result of a project carried out by the Cambodia Development Resource Institute (CDRI) and the OECD Development Centre, in collaboration with the Ministry of Interior and with support from the European Union. The project aimed to provide policy makers with evidence on the way migration influences specific sectors – the labour market, agriculture, education and investment and financial services – and, in turn, how sectoral policies affect migration. The report addresses three dimensions of the migration cycle that have become an important part of the country's social and economic contexts: emigration, remittances and return.
The results of the empirical work confirm that even though migration contributes to the development of Cambodia, the potential of migration is not fully exploited. One explanation is that migration only appears to a very limited extent in the National Strategic Development Plan. Many policy makers in Cambodia do not sufficiently take migration into account in their respective policy areas. Cambodia therefore needs to adopt a more coherent policy agenda to do more to integrate migration into its National Strategic Development Plan, improve co-ordination mechanisms and strengthen international co-operation. This would enhance the contribution of migration to development in the country.
The OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) conducts periodic reviews of the individual development co-operation efforts of DAC members. The policies and programmes of each member are critically examined approximately once every five years.
This review assesses the performance of Iceland, not just that of its development co-operation agency, and examines both policy and implementation. It takes an integrated, system-wide perspective on the development co-operation and humanitarian assistance activities of Iceland.
Costa Rica’s successful economic performance and social achievements realised over the last three decades are widely acknowledged. GDP per capita has steadily increased at higher rates than in most Latin American countries as the economy has evolved along its development path from a rural and agriculture-based to a more diversified economy integrated in global value chains. But Costa Rica faces challenges and must enhance and broaden the basis for productivity growth by strengthening its innovation system and enhancing the role of science, technology and innovation in addressing its national development goals.
This joint OECD and World Bank Group report, presented to G20 Trade Ministers in October 2015, focuses on the challenge of making GVCs more “inclusive” by overcoming participation constraints for SMEs and facilitating access for LIDCs. Results suggest that SME participation in GVCs is mostly taking place through indirect contribution to exports (rather than through direct exports), and that a holistic approach to trade, investment and national and multilateral policy action is needed to create more inclusive GVCs.
The report highlights the importance of ensuring access to ICT networks – in particular broadband – and stimulating innovation – in particular by enhancing the ability of SMEs to manage and protect their intellectual assets. At the same, the report underscores the importance of helping small firms scale up quickly, and to better integrate in GVCs by lowering barriers to the entry, growth and exit of firms. Countries should also avoid favouring incumbents over new firms.
This report analyses Philippine agricultural policy. Agriculture provides 30% of total employment in the Philippines and represents 11% of its Gross Domestic Product. The Philippines has had notable recent overall economic success, yet improving agricultural performance remains challenging. Productivity growth lags behind other Southeast Asian countries, and a number of policy distortions hinder progress. With agricultural land resources also under pressure from frequent natural disasters, rising population and urbanisation, the report offers a series of recommendations to improve the sector’s performance and its ability to adapt to climate change.
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This note reviews DAC Member performance in implementing agreed commitments to untie aid as covered by the 2001 DAC Recommendation (section II) and trends and patterns in untying ODA more generally.
Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in Georgia is the result of a project carried out by the Caucasus Research Resource Center (CRRC-Georgia) and the OECD Development Centre, in collaboration with the State Commission on Migration Issues (SCMI) and with support from the European Union. The project aimed to provide policy makers with evidence on the way migration influences specific sectors – the labour market, agriculture, education and investment and financial services – and, in turn, how sectoral policies affect migration. The report addresses three dimensions of the migration cycle that have changed remarkably in Georgia over the last 20 years: emigration, remittances and return.
The results of the empirical work confirm that even though migration contributes to the development of Georgia, the potential of migration is not fully exploited. One explanation is that, despite headway in the field of migration and development through the creation of the SCMI, not all policy makers in Georgia take migration sufficiently into account in their respective policy areas. Georgian authorities therefore need to adopt a more coherent policy agenda and better integrate migration into their sectoral strategies to enhance the contribution of migration to development in the country.
Emerging and developing countries have grown faster than advanced countries since the 2000s. This shifting weight of global economic activity from 'the West' to 'East and South' is referred to as 'shifting wealth'. But in recent years, a number of factors, such as lower commodity prices, seem to have brought this movement to a pause. Is the period of rapid growth in the emerging world over? This anthology takes stock of the situation and goes beyond the 'shifting wealth' narrative. It offers a forward-looking perspective on global risks and development opportunities over the next 15 years. It collects the perspectives of thought leaders from developing and emerging economies, offering their views and solutions on the most pressing global development challenges.
The first chapter provides the OECD Development Centre's analysis of major development trends. These trends include: slowing growth in China, the end of the commodity super cycle, increasing difficulty accessing global financial markets, demographic transitions, faltering job creation, rapid urbanisation, the negative effects of climate change and conflict and security. These challenges also provide development opportunities. Twelve thought leaders and development practitioners from the global South explore these opportunities in four thematic chapters. They deal with issues such as: structural transformation in a new macro environment; inclusive societies; energy and the environment; and new forms of development co-operation.
The anthology provides a starting point for dialogue and exchange on these risks and challenges as well as potential solutions to them.
The Revenue Statistics in Latin America and the Caribbean publication compiles comparable tax revenue statistics for a number of Latin American and Caribbean economies, the majority of which are not OECD member countries. The model is the OECD Revenue Statistics database which is a fundamental reference, backed by a well-established methodology, for OECD member countries. Extending the OECD methodology to Latin American and Caribbean countries enables comparisons about tax levels and tax structures on a consistent basis, both among Latin American and Caribbean economies and between OECD and Latin American and Caribbean economies. This publication is jointly undertaken by the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, the OECD Development Centre, the Inter-American Center of Tax Administrations (CIAT), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the Inter-American Development bank (IDB).