Myanmar is in need of a structural transformation from an agrarian economy to one based more on a mix of modern activities, including manufacturing and services. Modernising the agricultural sector by building linkages to complementary non-agricultural activities – an “agricultural value chain” approach – could set in motion this process of structural transformation. Furthermore, given Myanmar’s level of economic development, its large rural population and the weight of agriculture in the economy, a development strategy that puts agriculture and rural development at its core has the potential to make a significant positive impact for millions. This third report of the Multi-dimensional Review of Myanmar synthesises the findings and recommendations from the first two reports according to the following priorities as defined by stakeholders in Myanmar: supporting the agri-food sector’s ability to respond to market demand for quality products; introducing innovative models of delivering extension services and training to upgrade agronomic and technical skills; providing the conditions for a vibrant financial system that meet the needs of rural areas; strengthening land rights; engaging citizens in the policy making process; and managing and maximising the benefits of emigration from rural areas.
In 2009 developed countries committed to jointly mobilise USD 100 billion a year in climate finance by 2020 for climate action in developing countries. This report provides a status check on the level of climate finance mobilised by developed countries in 2013 and 2014, five years after this initial commitment was made at COP15 in Copenhagen. It shows that there has been significant progress in meeting this goal.
The report aims to be transparent and rigorous in its assessment of the available data and underlying assumptions and methodologies, within the constraints of an aggregate reporting exercise. While methodological approaches and data collection efforts to support estimates such as this one are improving, there nevertheless remains significant work to be done to arrive at more complete and accurate estimates in the future.
The landscape of tax services, traditionally provided by parties such as tax advisors, accountants and other tax practitioners, is changing, thanks to new technologies and services such as online accounting and filing, mobile devices, and machine-to-machine communication. This may lead to more integrated tax systems, in which taxation is part of the day-to-day operations of SMEs. This report provides an overview of relevant technological and business developments and new service solutions. It also explores how these influence SMEs, tax service providers and tax administrations – and the way that they co-operate. Tax administrations can adopt different types of network strategies for co-operating with tax service providers. The report identifies four basic network strategies. In countries without an established tax service provider infrastructure, such as developing and emerging economies, leveraging new technologies (such as online services and mobile payment) may create new possibilities for providing infrastructure that is both beneficial for SMEs and promotes tax compliance.
This review assesses the overall investment climate in the Philippines, looking at investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation, competition policy, infrasructure investment and responsible business conduct. The Review documents successful reform episodes over the past 25 years in the Philippines, assesses their impact and suggests areas for further reforms. It looks at how to raise investment levels by both foreign and domestic enterprises and at how to ensure that such investment contributes to sustainable and inclusive growth. The current macroeconomic situation in the Philippines is favourable, remittances are high, the business process outsource industry is booming, and the new Competition Act will help to make the domestic market more competitive. The Review argues for one further reform push to ease the many restrictions on foreign investors in the Philippines so as to provide an investment climate where all firms can invest and grow.
Food insecurity and malnutrition are major international concerns, especially in rural areas. At the global scale, they have received considerable attention and investment, but the results achieved so far have been mixed. Some countries have made progress at the national level, but still have many citizens who are food insecure, often concentrated in specific geographic areas. Food insecurity and poverty are highly interlinked and have a strong territorial dimension. To provide effective long-term solutions, policy responses must therefore be tailored to the specific challenges of each territory, taking into account a multidimensional response that includes food availability, access, utilisation and stability. This report highlights five case studies and the OECD New Rural Paradigm, presenting an effective framework for addressing food insecurity and malnutrition.
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This Policy Coherence for Development (CODE) report considers the complex policy landscape within which migration occurs and why it is necessary to have mechanisms to better deal with intra- and inter-policy linkages.
This report assesses the Republic of Kazakhstan’s significant efforts to improve water supply and sanitation (WSS) services over the past 15 years, notably in terms of ambitious target-setting, implementation of a sound water tariff policy, and significant investment in the rehabilitation and development of relevant infrastructure. Generally speaking, the absence of updated data on WSS institutional development is a limiting factor for further policy and programme development in the field, including in Kazakhstan. The monitoring and evaluation system proposed in this report aims to help assess progress in the WSS sector and serve as a basis for any necessary corrective measures.
For developing countries, uncertainty about funding can stand in the way of longer-term reforms. For donors, lack of transparency makes it harder to harmonise efforts.To promote transparency, we conduct annual surveys of donors' spending plans for the following years.
From numbers to meaning – what stories do the data tell us? Access our major reports covering global aid and development flows plus major in-depth studies by sector, type of aid and recipient groups.
Trade and investment in natural mineral resources hold great potential for generating income, growth and prosperity, sustaining livelihoods and fostering local development. However, a large share of these resources is located in conflict affected and high-risk areas. In these areas, exploitation of natural mineral resources is significant and may contribute, directly or indirectly, to armed conflict, gross human rights violations and hinder economic and social development. The OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas provides step-by-step management recommendations endorsed by governments for global responsible supply chains of all minerals, in order for companies to respect human rights and avoid contributing to conflict through their mineral or metal purchasing decisions and practices. The Due Diligence Guidance for minerals may be used by any company potentially sourcing any minerals or metals from conflict-affected and high-risk areas, and is intended to cultivate transparent, conflict-free supply chains and sustainable corporate engagement in the minerals sector.