|Multi-dimensional Review of Panama - Vol. 1 - Initial Assessment
Since the beginning of the 21st century, Panama has exhibited remarkable economic growth and has reduced the gap in terms of income per capita with high-income countries. Social progress has also been achieved, mainly through the reduction of poverty and advances in some well-being dimensions. However, challenges remain with regard to overcoming the so-called middle-income trap and consolidating the middle-class. This first volume of the Multi-dimensional Country Review of Panama identifies the main barriers to further inclusive development. It highlights that promoting equitable, inclusive and sustainable economic growth and improving the well-being of all citizens should be at the core of Panama’s development strategies.
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Chapter 1. Overview - Towards further sustainable development and inclusiveness in Panama
Panama has achieved socio-economic improvements in recent decades thanks to strong economic growth and consequent poverty reduction. Its growth model is characterised by a dual economy in which a small number of activities, including those related to the Canal and Special Economic Zones, have exhibited high productivity growth but limited job creation. Panama should now embark on a new reform agenda to become a sustainable and inclusive high-income country. This report urges greater productivity in sectors that contribute to job formalisation to reduce disparities in income and among regions. As developing these policies requires further resources, taxation system and private sector involvement through public-private partnerships should also be reinforced. Focusing on skills and jobs, regional development and development financing, the volume provides analysis and recommendations on three areas which are key for Panama.
Chapter 1: Overview: Towards a sustainable and inclusive high-income country
Multi-Dimensional Review of Panama - Volume 3: From Analysis to Action