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  • 13-September-2019

    English

    Climate Finance Provided and Mobilised by Developed Countries in 2013-17

    This report presents OECD estimates of annual volumes of climate finance provided and mobilised by developed countries for developing countries in 2013-17. These estimates include bilateral and multilateral public finance, official-supported export credits and mobilised private finance. The underpinning accounting framework is consistent with the one used by the OECD in 2015 to produce estimates of climate finance for the years 2013-14, as well as that used in 2016 to produce 2020 climate finance projections. Furthermore, it is also consistent with the outcome of the UNFCCC COP24 on modalities for the accounting of financial resources provided and mobilised through public interventions.
  • 13-September-2019

    English

    Climate finance for developing countries reached USD 71 billion in 2017

    Climate finance provided and mobilised by developed countries for climate action in developing countries reached USD 71.2 billion in 2017, up from USD 58.6 billion in 2016, according to new estimates from the OECD.

    Related Documents
  • 11-September-2019

    English

    Tax Morale - What Drives People and Businesses to Pay Tax?

    Unlocking what drives tax morale – the intrinsic willingness to pay tax – can greatly assist governments in the design of tax policies and their administration, particularly in developing countries where compliance rates are low. This report builds on previous OECD research to identify some of the key socio-economic and institutional drivers of tax morale across developing countries, and seeks to test for evidence of the social contract by examining the impact of public services on tax morale. It also uses new data on tax certainty as an entry point to explore tax morale in businesses, where existing research is very limited. Finally, the report identifies a range of factors related to the tax system that may affect business decision making, how they vary across regions, and suggests some areas for future research. Overall, the report provides a range of suggestions for further work, and how tax morale considerations can be integrated into holistic tax compliance strategies.
  • 10-September-2019

    English

    Multi-dimensional Review of Peru - Volume 3. From Analysis to Action

    Peru has experienced remarkable socio-economic progress over the last two decades, enabling it to join the group of upper middle-income countries around 2010. However, challenges are ahead if the country is not to be caught in various development traps. Overcoming these challenges in the near future to take the economy to the next level and become a country with higher productivity, inclusive development and well-being for all will require sound policy reforms. Further efforts are needed on three main fronts: economic diversification, connectivity and formalisation of jobs. This report analyses the main challenges in these three priority areas and sets up a policy action plan. It also proposes a scorecard including a series of indicators for monitoring progress derived from the implementation of the reforms proposed in these three areas and presents the objectives for each indicator that Peru should aim to achieve by 2025 and 2030.
  • 9-September-2019

    English

    OECD Reviews of Pension Systems: Peru

    This review assesses Peru’s pension system in its entirety, looking at both public and private, pay-as-you-go (PAYG) financed and funded pension provisions. The review then provides policy options to help tackle old-age poverty; establish a solid framework for the contributory pension system to meet its objectives; improve the coverage and level of pensions; and optimise the design and improve the regulation of the funded private pension component. A further goal of these proposals is to improve the Peruvian population’s trust that the country’s pension system will be able to deliver secure retirement income in old age. The review is the fifth in a series of country reviews of pension systems [Ireland (2014), Mexico (2016), Latvia (2018), and Portugal (2019)]. These reviews provide countries with policy options that will help them improve the functioning of their overall pension system. Tailored policy options are proposed based on the specificities of the national pension system, and on international best practices regarding reforms, design and regulation of pension systems.
  • 7-September-2019

    English

    G20 Contribution to the 2030 Agenda - Progress and Way Forward

    As the world's premier forum for international economic co-operation, the G20 plays a critical role in helping to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Based on robust evidence and available data, this report examines how the G20's contributions to the global goals across key sectors are already making a difference, while also suggesting where it could go further in leading by example to support the global goals.Collectively, G20 members account for around 85% of global gross domestic product, 75% of world trade and 80% of global carbon dioxide emissions – to name just a few areas of the G20's influence. This report, commissioned by the Government of Japan in support of its 2019 G20 Presidency, takes stock of the G20's progress to date against its Action Plan on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
  • 26-August-2019

    English

    Making Blended Finance Work for Water and Sanitation - Unlocking Commercial Finance for SDG 6

    Investments in water and sanitation are a prerequisite to deliver on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in particular on SDG 6 ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Blended finance can play an important role in strategically investing development finance to mobilise additional commercial finance needed to fill the current investment gaps. Thus far, however, blended finance has not reached scale in the water and sanitation sector. A greater evidence base is needed to better understand the current applications as well as the potential of blended models in the water and sanitation sector. This publication takes a commercial investment perspective and provides insights into three subsectors: (1) water and sanitation utilities, (2) small-scale off-grid sanitation and (3) multi-purpose water infrastructure and landscape-based approaches. The publication draws out recommendations for policy makers and practitioners to apply and scale innovative blended finance approaches where most appropriate.
  • 30-July-2019

    English

    Enhancing the Economic Regulatory System for Moldova’s Water Supply and Sanitation

    This report aims to support the development of a sound economic regulatory system for the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in the Republic of Moldova (hereafter 'Moldova'). The prevailing policy framework calls for drastic developments in WSS to modernise and optimise WSS systems and improve operational efficiency (non-revenue water, staff-output ratios etc.) – in line with domestic and international commitments (including the Association Agreement with the European Union, the Sustainable Development Goals, the Paris Agreement and the national WSS strategy). This report outlines ways and means for strengthening the capacity of the Moldovan government to provide sound regulation and that of WSS operators to deliver higher standards of service while ensuring the affordability of WSS services. Such a transition cannot happen overnight. It requires a sound economic regulatory system conducive to affordability, cost recovery and debt servicing, and a realistic performance improvement path for water utilities.
  • 23-July-2019

    English

    OECD converts complete 2016 and final 2017 Creditor Reporting System (CRS) data into XML format, by donor and by recipient

    The OECD now provides the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) 2015 and final 2016 data available in XML format. CRS data on development finance can now be downloaded in four different formats and cater to different audiences.

  • 17-July-2019

    English

    Linking Indigenous Communities with Regional Development

    The 38 million Indigenous peoples living across 12 OECD countries contribute to stronger regional and national economies, and have unique assets and knowledge that address global challenges such as climate change. Supporting their economic inclusion at local and regional levels is essential to achieving the promise of the Sustainable Development Goals to 'leave no-one behind' and overcoming the significant gaps in well-being that continue to exist between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations, notably in rural areas. This report provides recommendations to achieve vibrant local and regional Indigenous economies that deliver on their objectives for development by: improving Indigenous statistics and data governance; enabling policies for entrepreneurship and small business; providing instruments to mobilise land for development; and implementing effective and inclusive governance to support a place-based approach.
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