Peru has experienced significant improvements in growth, well-being and poverty reduction since the introduction of macroeconomic reforms, economic openness and more effective social programmes in the 1990s. However, the country still faces structural challenges to escape the middle-income trap and consolidate its emerging middle class. This report reviews the main bottlenecks to boost inclusive development and well-being in Peru. These include education and skills, the labour market, innovation, transport infrastructure and logistics, governance and trust in institutions. These dimensions have considerable implications for levels of productivity, inequalities and labour informality in Peru.
Investing in young people is essential for inclusive and sustainable development, since the way in which youth develop and grow will not only shape the present but will also profoundly determine the future of any country.Timely interventions directed at young people are therefore likely to yield a greater return than attempts to build these capacities later in the life-cycle.
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Recent economic growth in Myanmar has been relatively low for its level of income. The OECD’s medium-term growth forecasts indicate that without structural change the economy can grow at an average of 6.3% over 2013-17, somewhat below the government’s 7.7% target for between now and 2015.
Revenue Statistics in Asian Countries is jointly undertaken by the OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration and the OECD Development Centre. It compiles comparable tax revenue statistics for Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Korea and Japan. The model is the OECD Revenue Statistics database which is a fundamental reference, backed by a well-established methodology, for OECD member countries. Extending the OECD methodology to Asian countries enables comparisons about tax levels and tax structures on a consistent basis, both among Asian economies and between OECD and Asian economies. The report also includes country notes for emerging Asian countries, which discuss key tax and fiscal policy challenges.
This report analyses the incorporation of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education in Latin America, focusing mainly on what is commonly referred to as “e-learning”. Access to and quality of higher education, financial constraints and relevance to the needs of the labour market are all crucial challenges facing the higher education system in the region. The study attempts to understand how ICTs and new learning and teaching practices can help to meet these challenges. The report also provides the results of a questionnaire showing the degree of implementation and the impact of e-learning on a group of higher education institutions in Latin America and includes a set of policy recommendations in this area.
The African Economic Outlook 2015 analyses Africa’s growing role in the world economy and predicts the continent’s two-year prospects in crucial areas: macroeconomics, financing, trade policies and regional integration, human development, and governance. This 14th edition analyses regional development and spatial inclusion challenges faced by the continent. A section of one-page notes summarises recent economic growth, forecasts gross domestic product for 2015 and 2016, and highlights the main policy issues facing each of the 54 African countries. A statistical annex compares country-specific economic, social and political variables.
This report reviews the experience of Panama in designing, implementing and evaluating innovation policy. It provides a comparative analysis of Panama’s innovation performance and reviews the design and implementation of the national innovation policy focusing on the National Plan (2010-2014). The review of the institutional setting, the policy mix and budget for innovation policy includes a comparison with the experience of two peer countries, the Dominican Republic and Uruguay.
The world has made good progress in improving global livelihoods. More than two billion people have emerged from extreme poverty over the last four decades. Other notable improvements include real increases in wages for unskilled workers, better life expectancy, greater gender equality and more widespread literacy. However, a number of daunting challenges threaten to undo this progress, particularly on the demographic and environmental fronts. While outlining the status of livelihoods today, this fascinating report enumerates the main emerging trends which will have a significant impact on livelihoods in the near future. It looks at a whole range of issues: economy, technology, demography, environment, security and governance. This book presents five possible future scenarios for livelihoods, whose positive or negative outcomes depend on how several emerging challenges are dealt with. It concludes with ideas for global, national and local action that hold significant promise for securing resilient livelihoods for all.
The Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India is an annual publication on Asia’s regional economic growth, development and regional integration process. It focuses on the economic conditions of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries – Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam –, and also addresses relevant economic issues in China and India to fully reflect economic developments in the region. The Outlook provides an annual update of regional economic trends and policy challenges, and a thematic focus which is specific to each volume. The 2015 edition of the Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India comprises two main parts, each highlighting a particular dimension of recent economic developments in the region. The first part presents the regional economic monitor, depicting the medium-term economic outlook and macroeconomic challenges in the region. The second part consists of three chapters on “institutional capacity”, which is the special thematic focus of this edition.