In January 2013, the OECD launched the project “Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development: Case Studies and Policy Recommendations”, which aims to enhance partner countries’ capacity to incorporate migration into the design and implementation of their development strategies. The project seeks to better understand how international migration affects non-migration related public policies, and conversely, how these affect migration. The project is co-funded by the EU Thematic Programme on Migration and Asylum and managed by the OECD Development Centre. It is carried out in ten partner countries: Armenia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Dominican Republic, Georgia, Haiti, Morocco and the Philippines.
Specifically, the project aims to:
• Develop evidence-based analysis on:
- The significance of migration in low- and middle-income countries’ development strategies.
- The impact of both migration and non-migration related public policies on migration patterns and the situation of migrants.
- The effect of migration-related decisions on other policy domains and ultimately on the socio-economic development of origin and destination partner countries.
• Increase awareness among partner countries’ relevant interlocutors and provide them with policy recommendations on:
- How to incorporate the migration dimension into the design and implementation of their development strategies and other sectoral policy areas.
- How to ensure coherence between migration and other policy areas.
• Provide relevant stakeholders, both in the EU and partner countries, with guidance for policy dialogue.
• While most studies focus on the role of migration as a driver of development, this project shifts the scope towards policy coherence by analysing the impact of migration on sectoral development policies, as well as the results of these policies on migration.
• It analyses both South-North and South-South migration and considers developing countries not only as countries of destination, but also of origin.
• It goes beyond the identification of good practices, by providing empirical evidence based on quantitative and qualitative fieldwork at the country level and a comparative analysis of the partner countries.
• It involves robust co-operation both with relevant public authorities and local partners, principally research centres, and seeks to strengthen their capacities.
Migration has increasing weight in the economies of developing countries and impacts significantly on their development both in economic and social terms. This is either because governments have strategically based their economic development model on immigration or emigration, or because countries face migration flows that are essential for their economies yet do not have structured policies in place. Many of these countries also lack awareness about the synergies and interdependencies between migration and other public policies, and consequently neglect to consider migration trends when designing their development policies in sectors such as trade, agricultural and labour.
Not taking into account migration in the design of sectoral policies can generate problems at both the household and country levels. In the case of economic or political shock, changes in migration flows are difficult to cope with and may not only destabilise the economy, but may also weaken social cohesion. Furthermore, the sizeable informal sector in many low- and middle-income countries is frequently a magnet for the employment of undocumented workers, who often face problems related to exploitation, trafficking, smuggling and social dumping. The migration-development nexus – in particular, the need to design policy strategies that enhance migration’s positive effects on development – has received growing attention in recent years. By contrast, little attention has thus far been paid (in terms of evidence, policy dialogue and development co-operation) to the links between migration and other policy areas, particularly to the role that specific economic and social public policies can play in migration patterns and vice versa.
Whether directly or indirectly, migration influences numerous sectors in developing countries, from employment and social protection to agriculture, industry, trade and justice. In turn, many sectoral policies also have an impact on migration flows and on migrants and their communities, in both countries of origin and destination. Recognising this relationship, this project aims to uncover the interconnections between policy areas and identify the most suitable strategies – according to the country context – for fostering coherence between migration and sectoral policies.
The project aims to provide empirical evidence on the interrelations between migration and public policy based on quantitative and qualitative fieldwork at the country level. The methodological framework of the project has been developed by the OECD Development Centre and is implemented in each of the ten partner countries by local research partners, who are collecting new and unique data through the use of three tools:
The data will allow for analysis at the country level as well as analysis across countries. The household survey covers around 2 000 households in each of the countries and is distributed to both migrant- and non-migrant households. The survey includes a number of core modules related to education, employment, household expenditures, business activities and agriculture. It also includes specific migration modules related to immigration, emigration, remittances and return migration, as well as specific questions on policy programmes in each country.
|Pilot surveys, Burkina Faso|
|Pilot survey, Costa Rica|
|Pilot surveys, Dominican Republic|
The household survey is complemented by a community survey that is administered to local leaders and aims to gather information on the general characteristics of communities and the policies and development programmes affecting them.
|Enumerators training, Dominican Republic|
|Pilot survey, Cambodia|
Furthermore, with the goal of gaining a more in-depth understanding of the dynamics that govern migration and policy making, local partners in each country also conduct 40 to 50 qualitative interviews with stakeholders from ministries, the private sector, civil society, academia and international organisations.
The project will be carried out in the ten following countries: Armenia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Dominican Republic, Georgia, Haiti, Morocco and the Philippines.
In each country, local research partners will be in charge of (i) elaborating the state of the art at the country level; (ii) helping in the organisation of annual country-specific meetings; (iii) conducting the fieldwork; and (iv) drafting country studies. These partners will also be involved in the policy dialogue and capacity building components of the project. Their knowledge of the specific challenges faced by their countries – as well as their geographical, cultural and linguistic proximity to communities – will represent a significant factor in the project’s success.
Furthermore, at all stages of the project, government focal points will be consulted and involved in both national and global meetings. The active involvement of government partners throughout the entire implementation process will help build their capacities, an important horizontal component of the project’s objectives. Co-operation with the authorities in each country will be coupled with consultations with representations of civil society organisations (CSOs) and international organisations such as the International Labour Organization, the International Organization for Migration and the United Nations Development Programme.
Government focal points and local research partners in each country include:
Government Focal Point: State Migration Service
Local research partner: CRRC - Armenia
Government focal point: Secrétariat Permanent du Conseil Supérieur des Burkinabè de l'Étranger
Local research partner: Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Population
Government focal point: Ministry of Interior
Local research partner: Cambodia Development Resource Institute
Government focal point: Dirección General de Migración y Extranjería
Local research partner: Centro Centroamericano de Población, Universidad de Costa Rica
Government focal point: Office National de la Population
Local research partner: Centre Ivoirien de Recherches Économiques et Sociales
Government focal point: Ministerio de Economía, Planificación y Desarrollo
Local research partner: Centro de Investigación y Estudios Sociales, Universidad Iberoamericana
Government focal point: State Commission on Migration Issues
Local research partner: Caucasus Research Resource Centers
Government focal point: Office National de la Population
Local research partner: The Interuniversity Institute for Research and Development
Government focal point: Ministry in Charge of Moroccans Living Abroad and Migration Affairs
Local research partner: Mohammed V University of Rabat
Government focal point: Commission on Filipinos Overseas
Local research partner: Scalabrini Migration Center
Consultation meeting on the Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in Armenia
8 September 2015
23 July 2015
Consultation meeting on the Interrelations between Public Policies, Migration and Development in the Philippines
9 July 2015
Manila, the Philippines.
30 June 2015
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
11 June 2015
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
28 May 2015
28 October 2014
18 February 2014
Ministerio de Economía, Planificación y Desarrollo
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
5-6 December 2013
OECD Conference Centre
26 November 2013
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
19 November 2013
Hôtel La Tour Hassan
24 September 2013
Institut Supérieur des Sciences de la Population
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
19 September 2013
Novotel Abidjan Hôtel
Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
25 July 2013
Tbilisi Public Service Hall
18 July 2013
Crowne Plaza Corobici
San José, Costa Rica
1 July 2013
AIM Conference Centre
Makati City, Philippines
This 3.5-year project includes five main phases: (i) inception; (ii) conceptual and methodological frameworks; (iii) field work; (iv) comparative analysis; and (v) guidance for action.
During Phase I (4 months), which began in January 2013, 10 partner countries were selected in different regions of the world according to various criteria, including level of income and the significant weight of emigration and/or immigration in their populations.
Phase II (8 months) includes the elaboration of a conceptual framework on the different interactions between public policies, migration and development. This conceptual framework will contribute to the development of a methodological framework aimed at measuring the impact of public policies on migration in the target countries, as well as the implications of migration-related decisions on other policy domains and the socio-economic development of partner countries.
During Phase III (12 months), field work will be conducted within the partner countries by local partners.
During Phase IV (9 months), results from the partner countries will be analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. This evidence-based analysis will then translate into concrete policy recommendations. The final report prepared during this phase will include the overall analysis as well as the policy recommendations.
Finally, during Phase V (9 months), the final report’s main findings will be presented during a final conference. This phase will additionally be characterised by: the holding of country-specific dialogue to help policy makers translate the policy recommendations into a concrete policy framework; the organisation of capacity building workshops in each partner country; and the preparation of sectoral guidance notes by OECD experts, which are to be used in the context of policy dialogue with partner countries.
This project is managed by the OECD Development Centre in Paris, France and is led by David Khoudour, Head of the Migration and Skills Unit. For more information, please contact DEV.Migration@oecd.org.