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This paper focuses on such overlooked, but vital, dimensions, drawing from IEG's work and other development evaluations.
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Earnings Growth and Employment Creation: An Assessment of World Bank Support in Three Middle-Income Countries
The Bank has identified five policy areas that affect employment: macroeconomic conditions, investment climate, labor regulations, education, and social protection. This study assesses the Bank's assistance to Colombia, Tunisia, and Turkey, 1998-2007.
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The Mesoamerican Biological Corridor is a land-use planning system that spans Central America and the five southern-most states of Mexico. It promotes the conservation and sustainable use of the region’s natural resources.
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IEG reviewed a sample of 20 closed World Bank supported projects in or near tiger habitats in Asia with the potential to damage protected natural habitats. Roughly three-quarters of the projects evaluated prepared adequate mitigation plans to address direct impacts.
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Events of the past decade have underscored the vital need for social safety net (SSNs) programs in all countries, especially in times of crisis. Yet many middle-income countries found that their poverty-targeted SSNs were not flexible enough to increase coverage or benefits as needed.
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Assistance to the transition from an ad hoc emergency system to tackle food insecurity was provided through support for this project. The emphasis on moving from relief to a more productive and development-oriented safety net also aligned the project with wider World Bank objectives.
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The relevance of the WBG strategy waned through the evaluation period, despite being broadly congruent with the country's own aspirations.
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Despite improved access, much remains to be done in the water sector. The comprehensive assessment of the World Bank portfolio in the sector clearly points to major challenges that would have to be mastered in the future.
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IFC’s interventions are designed to contribute to growth, although it has been challenging for the Corporation to integrate distributional aspects in projects. Fewer than half the projects reviewed included evidence of poverty and distributional aspects in project design.
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The Bank has played to its comparative advantage in convening and mobilizing resources for new programs, but less in contributing to other institutional aspects of partnership formation, growth, and sustainability.