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This Review was prepared as part of the process of Israel’s accession to OECD membership. It highlights some of the key challenges facing Israel in its implementation and enforcement of competition policy. Israel became an OECD member on 7 September 2010.
This Investment Policy Review examines Colombia's achievements in developing an open and transparent investment regime and its efforts to reduce restrictions on international investment. The Review shows that, in the past few years, Colombia has made tremendous progress in promoting investment liberalisation and improving its investment policy framework. Colombia has also recently undertaken important policy reforms in many of the areas covered by the Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, including human rights, labour issues and bribery.
In recognition of its progress in pursuing policy reforms to promote investment liberalisation and improving the business climate, Colombia became the 43rd country to adhere to the OECD Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises. As an adherent to the Declaration, Colombia commits to providing national treatment to foreign investors and to promoting responsible business conduct, in line with the Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. In turn, the country benefits from similar assurances from other adherents to treat Colombian investors fairly.
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This report covers investment measures taken between 1 November 2011 and 29 February 2012. Information presented in this report has also been used for two joint reports by WTO, OECD and UNCTAD, released on 24 May and 25 October 2011, respectively, in response to the G20 Leaders' request of 2 April 2009 for quarterly public reporting on their adherence to their trade and investment policy commitments.
Zambia is one of the dynamic growth poles of Southern Africa and this Review highlights its progress in implementing its policy framework for investment and identifies some remaining challenges faced by the government.
This study focuses on the identification and quantification of the proceeds of active bribery in international business transactions. Public and private organisations alike have long recognised that bribery of public officials is harmful to good governance, economic development and competitive conditions. Confiscation and recovery of the proceeds derived from foreign bribery are key elements in the international framework to fight corruption of public officials.
Chapter 1 introduces the international legal framework for the treatment of the proceeds of active bribery and catalogues the legal remedies available in various jurisdictions, and how these remedies may interact. Chapter 2 defines five principal types of proceeds of active bribery and analyzes how they may be quantified. Each system is illustrated by examples from countries using such methods, as well as commentary on some practical challenges linked to the calculation of proceeds. Chapter 3 offers a compilation of case summaries to illustrate the principles covered in the preceding chapters.
Bribery of public officials is harmful to good governance, economic development and competitive conditions. Confiscation and recovery of the proceeds derived from foreign bribery are key elements in the international framework to fight corruption of public officials.