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Buyer power is concerned with how downstream firms can affect the terms of trade with upstream suppliers. There are two types of buyer power: monopsony power and bargaining power. The welfare implications, and therefore the appropriate enforcement policies, of the two types of buyer power are very different. Both result in lower input prices, but the exercise of monopsony power usually results in higher prices downstream.
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Firms operating in two-sided markets have to balance the interlinked demands of two types of customers. This may require a skewed price structure, which raises the issue of whether two-sided markets are socially efficient. In general, the profit maximizing structure is not socially optimal. But it does not exhibit any obvious bias, either. The Delegates discussed the ways in which enforcement issues differ in two-sided markets as
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Different definitions have been employed in order to capture different aspects of the informal economy. It often comprises a substantial share of GDP in many developing countries. Many researchers are concerned that informal firms negatively impact an economy because they are typically less productive than formal firms. Informal firms which fail to comply with various economic regulations or which fail to meet their tax obligations
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It is often said that competition policy protects competition, not individual competitors. Policies that support this concept promote consumer welfare, choice and efficiency. How sharply does industrial policy conflict with this? Industrial policy creates or favours national champions; yet it purports to have the same goals and produce many of the same benefits for the market. This roundtable examined the tensions and interesting
OECD Deputy Secretary-General Richard Boucher and the United Kingdom’s Secretary of Justice the Rt Hon Jack Straw MP and UK Permanent Representative to the OECD Dominic Martin talked about the challenges of tackling bribery at a conference in Chatham House
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This report outlines Portugal's response to the recommendations and follow-up issues identified by the Working Group at the time of Portugal's Phase 2 examination in March 2007.
The OECD Working Group on Bribery sharply criticised the Slovak Republic’s failure to bring its anti-bribery law on corporate liability into line with its international obligations under the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.
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Contagion risk and counterparty failure have been the main hallmarks of the current crisis. While some large diversified banks that focused mainly on commercial banking survived very well, others suffered crippling losses. Sound corporate governance and strong risk-management culture should enable banks to avoid excessive leverage and risk taking. The question is whether there is a better way, via leverage rules or rules on the
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This note explores various regulatory issues related to financial innovation. It starts from a premise that financial innovations are neither always helpful (or benign) nor always threatening. Innovations have the potential to provide for a more efficient allocation of resources and thereby a higher level of capital productivity and economic growth. Many financial innovations have had this effect. But others have not. Examples of the
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The structure and operation of the financial system have undergone marked changes in the past couple of decades, driven by dramatic improvements in technology, rapid product innovation, integration of financial systems, competition in financial services, and policy, regulatory, and trade reforms. The Policy Framework for Effective and Efficient Financial Regulation, supported by General Guidance and a High-Level Checklist, is a tool