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The various existing methods for calculating short-term borrowing requirements can result in distorted estimates. This article proposes a new method that yields economically meaningful results that can also be used to make cross-country comparisons.
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Current interest rates have been conducive to financial institutions assuming exposure to interest rate risks but, with interest rates expected to rise and yield curves likely to flatten, new challenges may be in store. This article draws attention to the increased risks and possible negative effects that the still-fragile banking sector could face in light of these developments.
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The first issue of the Statistical Yearbook on African Central Government Debt was published earlier this year. This article provides an overview of the publication which contains comprehensive and consistent information on African central government debt instruments. It includes both individual country data and comparative statistics to facilitate cross-country analysis.
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This article summarises discussions held at the 11th OECD-WBG-IMF Global Bond Market Forum where withdrawal of policy stimulus and sovereign risk were singled out as the two biggest concerns for investors. It addresses the continuing challenge of measuring sovereign risk, the need for more reliable indicators of sovereign risk to help make appropriate investment decisions and how difficult circumstances have forced sovereign issuers
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At the end of April 2010, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) published an exposure draft with proposed changes to International Accounting Standard No. 19 (IAS 19). IAS 19 is the current standard for the financial reporting of company pension obligations that stem from defined benefit (DB) and similar plans. It is required for exchange-listed companies in many parts of the world. If enacted, the changes to IAS 19
At the end of April 2010, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) published an exposure draft with proposed changes to International Accounting Standard No. 19 (IAS 19). If enacted, the changes to IAS 19 proposed by the IASB are expected to have a significant impact on company financials on a global basis.
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Practices that may harm competition in the pharmaceutical sector have emerged as important and controversial issues in recent years. This proceedings examine the nature of competition between generic and branded products in the pharmaceutical sector, as well as the effects on competition of agreements to delay the entry of generics on the market. It includes an analytical note by the staff of the United States Federal Trade
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Is financial stability enhanced or weakened by competition? This proceedings addresses the link between concentration and competition in the financial sector. It includes reports from Australia, Bulgaria, Chile, Egypt, the European Commission, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Chinese Taipei, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United
The OECD and IOPS invited comments on the draft OECD/IOPS Good Practices for Pension Funds’ Risk Management Systems between 5 July and 3 September 2010. These draft good practices aim to outline the main features of risk management systems which pension funds employ.
The OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations provide guidance on the application of the “arm’s length principle”, which is the international consensus on transfer pricing, i.e. on the valuation, for tax purposes, of cross-border transactions between associated enterprises. In a global economy where multinational enterprises (MNEs) play a prominent role, transfer pricing is high on the agenda of tax administrators and taxpayers alike. Governments need to ensure that the taxable profits of MNEs are not artificially shifted out of their jurisdictions and that the tax base reported by MNEs in their respective countries reflect the economic activity undertaken therein. For taxpayers, it is essential to limit the risks of economic double taxation that may result from a dispute between two countries on the determination of an arm’s length remuneration for their cross-border transactions with associated enterprises.
After having been originally published in 1979, the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines were approved by the OECD Council in their original version in 1995. A limited update was made in 2009, primarily to reflect the adoption, in the 2008 update of the Model Tax Convention, of a new paragraph 5 of Article 25 dealing with arbitration, and of changes to the Commentary on Article 25 on mutual agreement procedures to resolve cross-border tax disputes. In the 2010 edition, Chapters I-III were substantially revised, with new guidance on: the selection of the most appropriate transfer pricing method to the circumstances of the case; the practical application of transactional profit methods (transactional net margin method and profit split method); and on the performance of comparability analyses. Furthermore, a new Chapter IX, on the transfer pricing aspects of business restructurings, was added. Consistency changes were made to the rest of the Guidelines.