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Different definitions have been employed in order to capture different aspects of the informal economy. It often comprises a substantial share of GDP in many developing countries. Many researchers are concerned that informal firms negatively impact an economy because they are typically less productive than formal firms. Informal firms which fail to comply with various economic regulations or which fail to meet their tax obligations
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Buyer power is concerned with how downstream firms can affect the terms of trade with upstream suppliers. There are two types of buyer power: monopsony power and bargaining power. The welfare implications, and therefore the appropriate enforcement policies, of the two types of buyer power are very different. Both result in lower input prices, but the exercise of monopsony power usually results in higher prices downstream.
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Firms operating in two-sided markets have to balance the interlinked demands of two types of customers. This may require a skewed price structure, which raises the issue of whether two-sided markets are socially efficient. In general, the profit maximizing structure is not socially optimal. But it does not exhibit any obvious bias, either. The Delegates discussed the ways in which enforcement issues differ in two-sided markets as
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It is often said that competition policy protects competition, not individual competitors. Policies that support this concept promote consumer welfare, choice and efficiency. How sharply does industrial policy conflict with this? Industrial policy creates or favours national champions; yet it purports to have the same goals and produce many of the same benefits for the market. This roundtable examined the tensions and interesting
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This workshop addressed abuse of dominance, with discussions focusing on defining the relevant market, barriers to entry, determining whether market power exists, efficiency considerations as well as remedies and sanctions.
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Accounting professions provide key services for ensuring the smooth operation of market economies. Maintaining access to quality accounting work at a reasonable price is crucial for increasing transparency of publicly held companies. While many practices may serve to protect consumers who are not otherwise able to assess the company accounts, there appear to be many areas in which there is restricted competition, particularly as a
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Este informe evalúa el desarrollo y aplicación de la ley de competenciaen Colombia durante los últimos años y los resultados a esperar de sureciente reforma, en los campos de acuerdos anticompetitivos, abuso deposición dominante, fusiones y adquisiciones, exclusiones y exenciones,aspectos de procedimientos e institucionales, coordinación con reguladoressectoriales, revisiones judiciales, asuntos internacionales y defensa de
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Jointly published by OECD and the IDB, this report reviews competition laws and policies in Colombia and concludes with recommendations for changes in government policy. “Peer review” is a core element of OECD work. The mechanisms of peer review vary, but it is founded upon the willingness of all OECD countries and their partners to submit their laws and policies to substantive questioning by other members. This report is also
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This seminar explored how to detect and prevent bid rigging in public procurement using the OECD Guidelines for Fighting Bid Rigging. A variety of case studies in which procurement officials detected bid rigging or designed procedures for preventing bid rigging will be discussed. Key focal areas for the seminar are investigative best practices and techniques, leniency programs, trade associations, and the use of indirect evidence.
The OECD Recommendation on Competition Assessment calls for governments to identify existing or proposed public policies that unduly restrict competition and to revise them by adopting more pro-competitive alternatives.